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万字?文:30年的差距在哪里,中美玉米种??展比?

?源: 南方日?网?版     ??: 2018年10月20日 01:16:08
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(原)(?)(?)(:万)(字)(?)(文)(:30年)(的)(差)(距)(在)(哪)(里)(,中)(美)(玉)(米)(种)(?)(?)(展)(比)(?)(
更)(多)(、更)(及)(?)(的)(干)(?)(?)(容)(,?)(?)(注)(我)(?)(的)(网)(站)(
扑)(克)(投)(?)(家)(
?)(邀)(商)(品)(、利)(率)(、?)(率)(等)(?)(域)(?)(家)(、?)(者)(及)(机)(构)(向)(我)(?)(投)(稿)(
与)(21万)(行)(?)(精)(英)(分)(享)(
投)(稿)(?)(箱)(:tougao@puoke.com
文)(|新)(?)()(丰)(研)(究)(院)(
首)(?)(于)(inovoseed
?)(?)(|扑)(克)(投)(?)(家)(,?)(?)(?)(注)(明)(出)(?)(
玉)(米)(是)(我)(?)(重)(要)(的)(?)(食)(、?)(料)(及)(工)(?)(原)(料)(,种)(植)(面)(?)(和)(?)(?)(?)(次)(于)(美)(?)(,在)(?)(民)(?)(?)(中)(具)(有)(?)(足)(?)(重)(的)(?)(略)(地)(位)(。1996年)(,我)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(?)(和)(?)(?)(超)(?)(小)(?)(而)(?)(居)(禾)(谷)(?)(作)(物)(的)(第)(2位)(。2009年)(已)(?)(超)(?)(水)(稻)(成)(?)(我)(?)(种)(植)(面)(?)(最)(大)(的)(作)(物)(。2015年)(我)(?)(玉)(米)(种)(植)(面)(?)(?)(到)(5.4?)(多)(?)(,?)(?)(?)(2.12?)(吨)(。
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玉)(米)(新)(品)(种)(的)(推)(?)(利)(用)(在)(玉)(米)(增)(?)(?)(?)(中)(?)(?)(40%的)(作)(用)(,因)(此)(,玉)(米)(新)(品)(种)(?)(育)(与)(推)(?)(是)(支)(?)(玉)(米)(生)(?)(的)(核)(心)(技)(?)(,品)(种)(是)(玉)(米)(生)(?)(的)(第)(一)(要)(素)(。种)(子)(公)(司)(在)(其)(中)(扮)(演)(了)(重)(要)(的)(角)(色)(。?)(作)(物)(的)(?)(展)(除)(了)(受)(其)(自)(身)(的)(?)(量)(、抗)(逆)(性)(、抗)(病)(虫)(能)(力)(和)(品)(?)(等)(之)(外)(,?)(受)(到)(一)(些)(客)(?)(?)(件)(的)(影)(?)(,比)(如)(市)(?)(?)(境)(、投)(?)(、用)(途)(、利)(?)(及)(?)(家)(政)(策)(等)(影)(?)(。在)(美)(?)(玉)(米)(主)(要)(是)(用)(途)(是)(?)(料)(,因)(此)(受)(畜)(牧)(?)(?)(展)(的)(影)(?)(很)(大)(。未)(?)(由)(于)(能)(源)(短)(缺)(,玉)(米)(很)(有)(可)(能)(成)(?)(再)(生)(能)(源)(的)(主)(要)(材)(料)(,必)(然)(?)(影)(?)(未)(?)(玉)(米)(的)(需)(求)(,分)(配)(,利)(用)(,及)(生)(?)(。
作)(物)(的)(?)(展)(是)(一)(?)(?)(慢)(而)(?)(?)(的)(?)(程)(。必)(?)(?)(?)(政)(府)(引)(?)(,?)(本)(?)(累)(,技)(?)(更)(新)(,体)(制)(建)(立)(及)(科)(技)(?)(步)(等)(?)(段)(,才)(有)(可)(能)(做)(?)(做)(大)(。美)(?)(玉)(米)(种)(?)(的)(?)(展)(是)(一)(面)(很)(好)(的)(借)(?)(。因)(此)(希)(望)(?)(中)(美)(玉)(米)(种)(?)(?)(展)(的)(比)(?)(,?)(提)(供)(一)(些)(?)(未)(?)(中)(?)(种)(?)(?)(展)(的)(建)(?)(。
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一)()美)(?)(玉)(米)(的)(?)(展)(?)(史)(
美)(?)(玉)(米)(的)(?)(展)(大)(致)(可)(以)(分)(?)(四)(?)(?)(期)(,分)(?)(是)(:1)1930年)(以)(前)(--天)(然)(授)(粉)(?)(期)(;2)1930到)(1960年)(--?)(交)(种)(?)(期)(;3)1960到)(1985年)(--?)(交)(种)(?)(期)(;及)(4)1985年)(以)(后)(--?)(基)(因)(?)(期)(。每)(一)(?)(?)(期)(?)(型)(之)(后)(,都)(可)(以)(有)(效)(促)(?)(?)(量)(的)(增)(加)(。
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1)天)(然)(授)(粉)(?)(期)(?)(一)(?)(期)(是)(每)(家)(都)(可)(以)(生)(?)(,并)(出)(售)(自)(己)(的)(天)(然)(授)(粉)(果)(穗)(种)(子)(。比)(?)(好)(的)(天)(然)(授)(粉)(群)(体)(包)(括)(1850年)(的)(瑞)(德)((Reid),1860年)(的)(利)(民)((Liming),1870年)(的)(?)(卡)(斯)(特)((Lancaster),1890年)(的)(明)(尼)(?)(?)(13(Minnesota13),1900年)(的)(西)(北)(?)(?)(,及)(1910年)(的)(朗)(法)(?)(硬)(粒)(型)(等)(。每)(?)(人)(?)(拔)(的)(?)(件)(不)(相)(同)(,因)(此)(差)(异)(比)(?)(明)(?)(。比)(如)(利)(民)(是)(?)(型)(?)(穗)(,瑞)(德)(?)(?)(?)(是)(深)(凹)(陷)(大)(型)(深)(粒)(,特)(洛)(伊)(瑞)(德)((TroyerReid)是)(?)(瑞)(德)(?)(拔)(出)(?)(的)(籽)(粒)(比)(?)(平)(滑)(的)(?)(?)(?)(玉)(米)(。玉)(米)(的)(平)(均)(?)(量)(在)(1930年)(代)(是)(每)(一)(英)(?)(21蒲)(式)(耳)((注)(:每)(蒲)(式)(耳)(大)(?)(相)(?)(于)(25千)(克)()。1920年)(,亨)(利)(,?)(?)(士)((HenryC.Wallace),被)(任)(命)(?)(?)(?)(部)(?)(。1921年)(,美)(?)(?)(?)(部)(大)(力)(推)(?)(?)(交)(玉)(米)(?)(念)(,美)(?)(整)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(?)(始)(?)(行)(自)(交)(系)(的)(?)(育)(。美)(?)(早)(期)(的)(?)(交)(玉)(米)(,主)(要)(?)(自)(七)(大)(中)(心)(,包)(括)(三)(家)(私)(人)(企)(?)((Pioneer,Funk及)(Dekalb)及)(四)(家)(公)(立)(机)(构)(。
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2)?)(交)(种)(玉)(米)(?)(期)(的)(推)(?)(速)(度)(比)(?)(慢)(主)(要)(原)(因)(是)(?)(民)(?)(?)(交)(种)(的)(?)(?)(不)(足)(,以)(及)(?)(交)(种)(种)(子)(生)(?)(比)(?)(困)(?)(。美)(?)(在)(1933年)(,只)(有)(0.1%的)(玉)(米)(种)(植)(面)(?)(使)(用)(?)(交)(种)(玉)(米)(。大)(?)(是)(135,000英)(?)((54,675公)(?)()。到)(1950年)(?)(,美)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(99%的)(玉)(米)(地)(种)(植)(?)(种)(玉)(米)(。早)(期)(的)(?)(交)(种)(包)(括)(1931年)(的)(伊)(利)(?)(?)(交)(?)(种)(384(AxHyxR4xWF9),1933年)(MerleJenkins的)(IA939(L289XI205)X(Os420XOs426),1938年)(迪)(卡)((DeKalb)的)(DK404A,及)(1947年)(PerryCollins的)(先)(?)(P349等)(。玉)(米)(的)(平)(均)(?)(量)(在)(1942年)(?)(?)(到)(每)(英)(?)(35蒲)(式)(耳)(。
3)?)(交)(种)(推)(?)(之)(后)(,美)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(量)(增)(加)(很)(多)(,1960年)(平)(均)(?)(量)(是)(每)(英)(?)(55蒲)(式)(耳)(,1970年)(平)(均)(?)(量)(是)(每)(英)(?)(72蒲)(式)(耳)(,1980年)(平)(均)(?)(量)(是)(每)(英)(?)(91蒲)(式)(耳)(。
4)?)(基)(因)(?)(期)(,?)(量)(增)(加)(的)(幅)(度)(更)(大)(,1990年)(平)(均)(?)(量)(是)(每)(英)(?)(119蒲)(式)(耳)(。2000年)(平)(均)(?)(量)(是)(每)(英)(?)(137蒲)(式)(耳)(。2009年)(平)(均)(?)(量)(是)(每)(一)(英)(?)(163蒲)(式)(耳)(。最)(大)(?)(量)(是)(2008年)(的)(一)(英)(?)(?)(量)(368蒲)(式)(耳)(。种)(植)(先)(?)(?)(种)(31N30。可)(?)(玉)(米)(具)(有)(很)(大)(的)(?)(量)(?)(能)(。
1862年)(5月)(20日)(,林)(肯)(?)(署)(?)(家)(法)((HomesteadAct),?)(美)(?)(西)(部)(及)(中)(西)(部)(未)(?)(?)(土)(地)(,免)(?)(?)(送)(160英)(?)(?)(每)(一)(?)(合)(格)(的)(?)(邦)(士)(兵)(或)(美)(?)(人)(。?)(件)(是)(必)(需)(在)(那)(?)(?)(地)(上)(面)(?)(房)(子)(及)(居)(住)(一)(年)(。加)(速)(美)(?)(土)(地)(?)(?)(及)(玉)(米)(种)(植)(的)(?)(充)(。1862年)(7月)(6日)(,林)(肯)(?)(署)(大)(?)(土)(地)(?)(与)(法)((LandGrantCollegeAct)。所)(有)(大)(?)(使)(用)(的)(土)(地)(由)(政)(府)(免)(?)(?)(送)(。?)(件)(是)(必)(需)(以)(教)(授)(?)(?)(及)(?)(?)(科)(研)(?)(主)(要)(教)(?)(目)(?)(。美)(?)(中)(西)(部)(大)(?)(的)(建)(立)(,包)(括)(印)(第)(安)(?)(,伊)(利)(?)(,依)(阿)(?)(,明)(尼)(?)(?)(,密)(?)(里)(,?)(布)(拉)(斯)(加)(,及)(威)(斯)(康)(辛)(等)(,都)(是)(?)(?)(法)(律)(的)(受)(惠)(者)(。美)(?)(?)(?)(部)(?)(?)(站)(的)(科)(研)(人)(?)(与)(大)(?)(保)(持)(?)(密)(的)(?)(系)(,以)(政)(府)(官)(?)(及)(大)(?)(教)(授)(?)(?)(的)(?)(重)(身)(份)(,?)(?)(服)(?)(,育)(种)(,教)(育)(,解)(?)(及)(推)(?)(?)(地)(的)(?)(?)(。事)(?)(上)(美)(?)(?)(?)(部)(最)(早)(的)(病)(理)(?)(?)(站)(之)(一)(是)(建)(立)(在)(方)(克)(兄)(弟)(种)(?)(的)(土)(地)(上)(。可)(以)(?)(政)(府)(及)(民)(?)(保)(持)(最)(?)(密)(的)(科)(研)(?)(系)(。最)(早)(的)(玉)(米)(自)(交)(系)(主)(要)(是)(?)(自)(政)(府)(或)(公)(立)(大)(?)(科)(研)(的)(成)(果)(。包)(括)(A619(1961),A632(1964,Henderson),B14(1953,Sprague),B37(1958,Sprague),B73(1972,Russell),N28(1964,Compton,LonnquistandWilliams),MO17(1964,Zuber),Oh43(1949,Stringfield),W64A(1954,Neal)及)(Wf9(1948)等)(。最)(早)(的)(种)(?)(是)(Funk,Dekalb,Pioneer及)(Pfister四)(家)(。尤)(金)(,方)(克)(1922年)(成)(立)(方)(克)(兄)(弟)(种)(?)(FunkBrothersSeedCompany,1972年)(改)(名)(?)(FunkSeedsInternational,Inc.,公)(司)(部)(分)(合)(伙)(人)(离)(?)(,?)(建)(金)(色)(收)(?)((GoldenHarvest)种)(?)(。1974年)(,Funk由)(Ciba-Geigy收)(?)(。金)(色)(收)(?)(种)(?)(2004年)(被)(先)(?)(?)((Syngenta)收)(?)(。亨)(利)("?)(?)(士)(1926年)(成)(立)(?)(交)(玉)(米)(公)(司)((Hi-BredCornCompany)。1935年)(改)(名)(?)(先)(?)(?)(种)(玉)(米)(公)(司)((PioneerHi-BredSeedCompany)。1999年)(由)(杜)(邦)(化)(?)(收)(?)(。LesterPfister1922年)(成)(立)(PfisterHybridCornCompany。ThomasRoberts1923年)(成)(立)(迪)(卡)(?)(种)(玉)(米)((DeKalbHybridCorn)。1982年)(与)(Pfizer合)(并)(?)(DeKalb-PfizerGenetics,1998年)(由)(孟)(山)(都)((Monsanto)收)(?)(。早)(期)(的)(私)(?)(种)(?)(?)(?)(到)(政)(府)(的)(?)(极)(?)(与)(是)(?)(大)(玉)(米)(增)(?)(效)(果)(的)(重)(要)(因)(素)(。政)(府)(也)(?)(?)(到)(?)(家)(?)(法)(控)(制)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(,生)(?)(,加)(工)(,?)(?)(,?)(?)(及)(?)(售)(的)(?)(-?)(-?)(每)(一)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(部)(?)(划)(,操)(作)(及)(?)(?)(。必)(需)(放)(手)(?)(私)(?)(种)(?)(公)(司)(在)(自)(由)(?)(?)(的)(?)(境)(下)(?)(立)(?)(?)(。才)(能)(?)(?)(最)(大)(效)(益)(。因)(此)(美)(?)(玉)(米)(成)(功)(?)(展)(的)(最)(重)(要)(因)(素)(是)(政)(府)(与)(民)(?)(种)(?)(?)(手)(合)(作)(的)(?)(果)(。1980年)(代)(,超)(?)(60年)(的)(种)(?)(有)(7家)(,50年)(的)(种)(?)(有)(43家)(,40年)(的)(种)(?)(有)(7家)(,25年)(的)(种)(?)(5家)(,合)(?)(64家)(?)(?)(?)(事)(?)(交)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(的)(种)(?)(。?)(1980年)(到)(2004年)(,美)(?)(33?)(私)(?)(种)(?)(共)(有)(908?)(自)(交)(系)(?)(得)(?)(利)(或)(品)(种)(?)(保)(?)((MikelandDudley,2006)。公)(立)(科)(研)(?)(位)(育)(成)(的)(可)(用)(自)(交)(系)(很)(少)(。自)(交)(系)(?)(育)(工)(作)(已)(?)(?)(移)(到)(私)(?)(企)(?)(。美)(?)(种)(?)(的)(?)(化)(,?)(1930年)(代)(的)(3,500家)(,?)(少)(到)(1960年)(代)(的)(2,000家)(,到)(1995年)(的)(500家)(,到)(?)(在)(2015年)(的)(可)(能)(150家)(的)(改)(?)(。
种)(?)(?)(化)(的)(?)(?)(是)(种)(?)(公)(司)(?)(量)(愈)(?)(愈)(少)(,但)(是)(种)(?)(公)(司)(的)(?)(模)(愈)(?)(愈)(大)(。美)(?)(?)(?)(投)(?)(的)(回)(?)(率)(大)(?)(?)(15%。种)(?)(公)(司)(的)(投)(?)(?)(模)(,?)(品)(优)(?)(及)(科)(技)(水)(平)(,?)(定)(?)(公)(司)(的)(?)(?)(能)(力)(。小)(型)(公)(司)(?)(法)(与)(大)(型)(公)(司)(?)(?)(,逐)(?)(淘)(汰)(。少)(?)(几)(家)(大)(型)(种)(?)(几)(乎)(?)(?)(美)(?)(玉)(米)(种)(?)(市)(?)(。依)(据)(美)(?)(1994年)(?)(查)(,美)(?)(共)(?)(有)(2,241名)(育)(种)(家)(,?)(?)(部)(有)(529人)(,私)(?)(公)(司)(1,499人)(。玉)(米)(育)(种)(家)(有)(545位)(。其)(中)(512位)((94%)服)(?)(于)(私)(人)(企)(?)(,33位)((6%)服)(?)(于)(大)(?)(或)(?)(?)(部)(公)(?)(?)(位)(。私)(?)(种)(?)(以)(?)(利)(?)(目)(?)(。育)(种)(?)(划)(明)(确)(,?)(?)(充)(足)(。以)(?)(大)(市)(?)(占)(有)(率)(及)(?)(?)(?)(目)(的)(。因)(此)(80%私)(?)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(家)(以)(?)(育)(自)(交)(系)(?)(主)(,其)(余)(20%育)(种)(家)(?)(?)(基)(?)(育)(种)(研)(究)(,种)(?)(?)(源)(?)(增)(及)(群)(体)(?)(建)(。?)(家)(投)(?)(在)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(的)(?)(?)(?)(1990年)(代)(?)(始)(?)(少)(。公)(?)(?)(位)(育)(种)(家)(已)(?)(不)(能)(?)(事)(正)(常)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(?)(划)(。因)(此)(?)(在)(公)(?)(育)(种)(家)(的)(主)(要)(工)(作)(是)(教)(育)(及)(?)(?)(未)(?)(的)(育)(种)(家)(。
二)()中)(?)(玉)(米)(的)(?)(展)(?)(史)(
20世)(?)(以)(?)(,?)(?)(?)(代)(科)(?)(技)(?)(的)(?)(展)(,我)(?)(一)(批)(?)(身)(于)(玉)(米)(?)(展)(事)(?)(的)(有)(志)(之)(士)(,通)(?)(?)(心)(研)(究)(,?)(育)(了)(不)(同)(?)(型)(的)(玉)(米)(新)(品)(种)(,形)(成)(了)(我)(?)(不)(同)(?)(史)(?)(期)(的)(品)(种)(?)(构)(,回)(?)(我)(?)(玉)(米)(品)(种)(的)(改)(良)(,大)(致)(?)(?)(了)(玉)(米)(品)(种)(改)(良)(的)(?)(蒙)(?)(期)(,玉)(米)(良)(种)(?)(?)(和)(品)(种)(?)(?)(交)(种)(?)(育)(与)(?)(用)(?)(期)(,玉)(米)(?)(交)(的)(?)(育)(与)(?)(用)(?)(期)(和)(?)(交)(种)(的)(?)(育)(与)(?)(用)(?)(期)(。
1)玉)(米)(品)(种)(改)(良)(的)(?)(蒙)(?)(期)((1900—1949年)()
20世)(?)(初)(到)(1949年)(是)(我)(?)(近)(代)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(的)(?)(蒙)(和)(?)(建)(?)(期)(。?)(一)(?)(期)(?)(,我)(?)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(的)(先)(?)(?)(在)(地)(方)(品)(种)(改)(良)(和)(自)(交)(系)(、?)(交)(种)(?)(育)(等)(方)(面)(?)(展)(了)(一)(系)(列)(的)(研)(究)(。1925年)(,中)(央)(大)(?)(?)(?)(院)(?)(?)(芳)(率)(先)(?)(展)(了)(玉)(米)(自)(交)(系)(和)(?)(交)(种)(?)(育)(工)(作)(,?)(?)(了)(我)(?)(?)(代)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(的)(新)(?)(元)(。1934年)(,金)(善)(?)(?)(表)(《近)(代)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(法)(》,?)(?)(介)(?)(了)(玉)(米)(?)(交)(育)(种)(理)(?)(和)(技)(?)(。1937年)(和)(1938年)(,在)(美)(?)(的)(?)(德)(麒)(和)(?)(?)(k?(先)(后)(回)(?)(,?)(回)(了)(42?)(?)(交)(种)(和)(50多)(?)(自)(交)(系)(,由)(中)(央)(?)(?)(?)(?)(所)(主)(持)(分)(?)(在)(成)(都)(、?)(?)(、昆)(明)(、柳)(州)(等)(地)(?)(行)(比)(?)(?)(?)(,?)(出)(有)(利)(用)(价)(值)(的)(Wisc、696、Cornell29-3等)(?)(交)(种)(。?)(1939年)(起)(,原)(?)(北)(?)(事)(?)(?)(?)(?)(始)(?)(事)(地)(方)(品)(种)(改)(良)(,?)(出)(“?)(?)(1?)(”和)(“?)(?)(2?)(”?)(?)(品)(种)(,在)(?)(北)(部)(分)(地)(?)(推)(?)(种)(植)(。
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2)良)(种)(?)(?)(和)(品)(种)(?)(?)(交)(种)(?)(育)(与)(?)(用)(?)(期)((解)(放)(初)(到)(50年)(代)(后)(期)()
新)(中)(?)(成)(立)(后)(,我)(?)(的)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(工)(作)(才)(得)(以)(有)(?)(划)(、有)(步)(?)(地)(?)(?)(?)(展)(。1949年)(12月)(,全)(?)(?)(?)(生)(?)(?)(?)(召)(?)(,?)(?)(k?(的)(《利)(用)(?)(交)(优)(?)(增)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(量)(》?)(言)(提)(出)(:一)(方)(面)(?)(育)(与)(利)(用)(技)(?)(?)(?)(、需)(?)(?)(短)(的)(品)(种)(?)(?)(交)(种)(,另)(一)(方)(面)(?)(手)(?)(展)(?)(?)(?)(?)(、增)(?)(?)(著)(的)(自)(交)(系)(?)(?)(交)(种)(?)(育)(。1950年)(2月)(?)(?)(部)(召)(?)(“全)(?)(玉)(米)(工)(作)(座)(?)(?)(”,?)(?)(k?(、?)(?)(桂)(、李)(?)(雄)(、?)(泰)(、?)(?)(文)(等)(?)(家)(制)(定)(了)(《全)(?)(玉)(米)(改)(良)(?)(划)(》,根)(据)(?)(?)(我)(?)(育)(种)(基)(?)(薄)(弱)(的)(?)(?)(情)(?)(,提)(出)(以)(推)(?)(品)(种)(?)(?)(交)(种)(先)(行)(,同)(?)(?)(展)(?)(合)(品)(种)(,以)(?)(足)(?)(?)(生)(?)(需)(要)(。另)(外)(,?)(明)(确)(提)(出)(了)(以)(?)(育)(自)(交)(系)(?)(?)(交)(种)(作)(?)(我)(?)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(的)(?)(展)(方)(向)(。?)(一)(?)(期)(,?)(?)(多)(?)(家)(品)(种)(中)(?)(?)(?)(定)(出)(金)(皇)(后)(、英)(粒)(子)(、金)(?)(子)(、白)(?)(牙)(、白)(?)(、旅)(大)(?)(骨)(、?)(?)(白)(、四)(平)(?)(、小)(粒)(?)(、大)(粒)(?)(、安)(?)(?)(?)(牙)(11?)(、?)(?)(二)(?)(牙)(等)(优)(良)(?)(家)(品)(种)(,逐)(步)(替)(?)(掉)(低)(劣)(品)(种)(。
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据)(?)(?)(,50年)(代)(全)(?)(共)(搜)(集)(整)(理)(地)(方)(品)(种)(14000多)(份)(,?)(?)(出)(良)(种)(2000?)(,在)(生)(?)(上)(推)(?)(?)(用)(200多)(?)(,种)(植)(面)(?)(?)(大)(的)(有)(43?)(,占)(玉)(米)(?)(面)(?)(的)(85%以)(上)(。主)(要)(有)(金)(皇)(后)(、金)(?)(子)(、白)(?)(牙)(、英)(粒)(子)(、?)(?)(白)(等)(。优)(良)(品)(种)(?)(?)(交)(种)(?)(有)(:春)(?)(2?)((?)(陵)(白)(?)(牙)(×197)、夏)(?)(1?)((?)(?)(2?)(×英)(粒)(子)()、公)(交)(82?)((大)(金)(?)(×?)(岭)(?)(?)(牙)()、?)(?)(1?)((昔)(?)(大)(?)(玉)(米)(×金)(皇)(后)()、百)(?)(6?)((干)(白)(?)(×安)(?)(?)(?)(牙)(11?)()等)(,一)(般)(比)(?)(家)(品)(种)(增)(?)(10%一)(30%,逐)(步)(取)(代)(了)(小)(粒)(?)(、白)(?)(牙)(、金)(?)(子)(等)(?)(家)(品)(种)(。
3)玉)(米)(?)(交)(种)(?)(育)(与)(?)(用)(?)(期)((50年)(代)(后)(期)(60年)(代)(后)(期)()
1957年)(,?)(?)(部)(?)(布)(了)(“?)(于)(?)(行)(玉)(米)(?)(交)(种)(育)(种)(工)(作)(的)(意)(?)(”后)(,全)(?)(各)(地)(?)(展)(了)(玉)(米)(自)(交)(系)(?)(?)(交)(育)(种)(工)(作)(,相)(?)(育)(成)(一)(批)(高)(?)(?)(交)(种)(,全)(?)(共)(育)(成)(?)(交)(种)(50多)(?)(。
李)(?)(雄)(和)(?)(?)(庚)(主)(持)(育)(成)(了)(?)(大)(3?)(、?)(大)(4?)(、?)(大)(7?)(,其)(中)(?)(大)(4?)(在)(山)(西)(省)(推)(?)(种)(植)(450多)(万)(?)(。?)(允)(奎)(主)(持)(育)(成)(了)(川)(?)(7?)(、川)(?)(15?)(以)(及)(三)(交)(种)(矮)(?)(苞)(。?)(?)(文)(主)(持)(育)(成)(了)(?)(?)(3?)(、?)(?)(4?)(,其)(中)(,?)(?)(3?)(在)(全)(?)(累)(?)(推)(?)(5100多)(万)(?)(。?)(泰)(主)(持)(育)(成)(了)(春)(?)(5?)(、春)(?)(12?)(。?)(?)(吉)(主)(持)(育)(成)(了)(新)(?)(1?)(、新)(?)(2?)(等)(。其)(中)(,新)(?)(1?)(在)(全)(?)(累)(?)(推)(?)(1.5?)(?)(以)(上)(。
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使)(全)(?)(玉)(米)(生)(?)(以)(?)(家)(种)(?)(主)(走)(上)(了)(以)(?)(交)(种)(?)(主)(的)(?)(段)(。?)(交)(种)(的)(?)(育)(与)(推)(?)(真)(正)(体)(?)(了)(?)(种)(优)(?)(在)(玉)(米)(生)(?)(上)(的)(?)(用)(价)(值)(,使)(全)(?)(玉)(米)(平)(均)(?)(?)(?)(50年)(代)(后)(期)(的)(90公)(斤)(,提)(高)(到)(60年)(代)(后)(期)(的)(115公)(斤)(左)(右)(,增)(?)(28%左)(右)(。
4)?)(交)(种)(的)(?)(育)(与)(?)(用)(?)(期)((60年)(代)(后)(期)(至)(今)()
在)(?)(育)(?)(交)(种)(?)(程)(中)(,我)(?)(育)(种)(者)(已)(?)(注)(意)(到)(了)(优)(良)(?)(交)(种)(比)(?)(交)(种)(植)(株)(性)(?)(更)(?)(整)(?)(,?)(交)(优)(?)(更)(?)(,抗)(病)(性)(?)(、?)(本)(繁)(殖)(和)(制)(种)(?)(?)(。玉)(米)(育)(种)(工)(作)(由)(?)(育)(?)(交)(种)(?)(主)(,向)(?)(交)(种)(?)(主)(跨)(越)(。?)(一)(?)(期)(是)(玉)(米)(品)(种)(改)(良)(最)(?)(?)(煌)(的)(?)(期)(,主)(要)(包)(含)(了)(六)(次)(玉)(米)(品)(种)(更)(新)(?)(代)(。
(1)第)(1次)(玉)(米)(品)(种)(更)(新)(?)(代)((20世)(?)(60年)(代)(中)(后)(期)(到)(70年)(代)(初)(期)()
?)(一)(?)(期)(主)(要)(是)(指)(以)(新)(?)(1?)(?)(代)(表)(的)(?)(交)(种)(的)(育)(成)(与)(与)(推)(?)(?)(志)(?)(我)(?)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(?)(以)(?)(育)(?)(交)(种)(?)(主)(?)(向)(培)(育)(?)(交)(种)(?)(主)(的)(新)(?)(段)(。在)(?)(?)(上)(和)(美)(?)(先)(后)(同)(?)(推)(?)((美)(?)(于)(1963年)(?)(始)(推)(?)(第)(1?)(?)(交)(种)(),而)(早)(于)(英)(、俄)(、德)(?)(?)(,使)(我)(?)(也)(成)(?)(世)(界)(上)(大)(?)(模)(?)(用)(?)(交)(种)(最)(早)(的)(?)(家)(之)(一)(。同)(?)(,使)(全)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(?)(由)(20世)(?)(60年)(代)(中)(后)(期)(的)(110kg/?)(左)(右)(,增)(加)(到)(70年)(代)(初)(期)(的)(140kg/?)(,增)(?)(27.3%。
(2)第)(2次)(玉)(米)(品)(种)(更)(新)(?)(代)((70年)(代)(初)(期)(到)(80年)(代)(初)(期)()
?)(?)(期)(是)(以)(中)(?)(2?)(?)(代)(表)(的)(?)(交)(种)(的)(育)(成)(与)(推)(?)(,?)(志)(?)(我)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(交)(种)(的)(?)(配)(和)(推)(?)(已)(?)(?)(入)(了)(相)(?)(成)(熟)(的)(?)(期)(,?)(交)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(?)(?)(了)(丰)(?)(、多)(抗)(和)(?)(适)(性)(三)(大)(育)(种)(目)(?)(的)(?)(一)(。使)(?)(种)(优)(?)(利)(用)(?)(入)(了)(一)(?)(新)(的)(?)(代)(,?)(交)(种)(推)(?)(普)(及)(速)(度)(加)(快)(,种)(植)(面)(?)(大)(不)(?)(攀)(升)(,使)(全)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(交)(种)(的)(播)(种)(面)(?)(?)(到)(了)(80%以)(上)(。促)(?)(了)(玉)(米)(的)(大)(幅)(度)(增)(?)(,使)(全)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(?)(由)(20世)(?)(70年)(代)(初)(期)(的)(140kg/?)(,增)(加)(到)(80年)(代)(初)(期)(205kg/?)(,增)(?)(46.4%。
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(3)第)(3次)(玉)(米)(品)(种)(更)(新)(?)(代)((80年)(代)(初)(期)(到)(90年)(代)(初)(期)()
丹)(玉)(13(Mo17Ht×E28)、?)(?)(14、掖)(?)(2?)(和)(四)(?)(8?)(等)(?)(代)(表)(的)(品)(种)(,?)(?)(了)(高)(?)(、?)(适)(、多)(抗)(等)(优)(良)(性)(?)(的)(有)(机)(?)(合)(,?)(我)(?)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(技)(?)(的)(?)(步)(,特)(?)(是)(抗)(病)(育)(种)(技)(?)(的)(?)(展)(起)(到)(了)(重)(要)(的)(推)(?)(作)(用)(。同)(?)(,使)(全)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(?)(由)(80年)(代)(初)(期)(的)(205kg/?)(,增)(加)(到)(90年)(代)(初)(期)(的)(303kg/?)(,增)(?)(47.8%。
(4)第)(4次)(玉)(米)(品)(种)(更)(新)(?)(代)((90年)(代)(初)(期)(到)(90年)(代)(后)(期)()
?)(?)(期)(的)(代)(表)(品)(种)(是)(掖)(?)(13?)((478×丹)(340)。?)(品)(种)(是)(原)(?)(州)(市)(?)(科)(所)(?)(育)(的)(?)(?)(型)(玉)(米)(?)(交)(种)(。它)(的)(育)(成)(?)(志)(?)(我)(?)(在)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(方)(面)(探)(索)(出)(一)(?)(通)(?)(?)(?)(大)(穗)(?)(得)(高)(?)(的)(新)(途)(?)(,?)(?)(了)(以)(群)(体)(生)(?)(力)(?)(得)(高)(?)(的)(新)(路)(。
(5)第)(5次)(玉)(米)(品)(种)(更)(新)(?)(代)((90年)(代)(后)(期)(到)(21世)(?)(初)()
?)(大)(108(178×?)(C)是)(中)(?)(?)(?)(大)(?)(育)(成)(,是)(20世)(?)(90年)(代)(中)(后)(期)(至)(21世)(?)(初)(在)(全)(?)(重)(?)(推)(?)(的)(?)(?)(、大)(穗)(型)(、?)(?)(兼)(用)(的)(优)(?)(玉)(米)(新)(品)(种)(,?)(第)(5代)(玉)(米)(?)(交)(种)(的)(优)(秀)(代)(表)(。1997年)(后)(分)(?)(通)(?)(了)(北)(京)(、河)(北)(、天)(津)(、河)(南)(等)(多)(省)(和)(?)(家)(?)(定)(。主)(要)(特)(?)(:?)(?)(基)(?)(?)(泛)(,融)(入)(了)(北)(美)(种)(?)(、?)(?)(和)(?)(?)(?)(种)(?)(及)(?)(?)(地)(方)(种)(?)(;表)(?)(出)(高)(?)(、?)(?)(、优)(?)(,抗)(倒)(、耐)(旱)(、耐)(瘠)(薄)(和)(抗)(多)(种)(病)(虫)(害)(的)(?)(多)(优)(?)(;适)(?)(性)(?)(,在)(我)(?)(?)(北)(、?)(北)(、西)(北)(春)(玉)(米)(?)(、?)(淮)(海)(夏)(播)(玉)(米)(?)(和)(西)(南)(山)(地)(玉)(米)(?)(?)(?)(种)(植)(。累)(?)(推)(?)(面)(?)(?)(2.3?)(?)(,最)(高)(年)(份)(?)(4100万)(?)(。
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(6)第)(6次)(玉)(米)(品)(种)(更)(新)(?)(代)((2004年)(至)(2011年)()
?)(一)(?)(期)(我)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(展)(到)(了)(很)(高)(的)(水)(平)(,主)(要)(是)(由)(于)(?)(?)(跨)(?)(公)(司)(直)(接)(?)(与)(?)(?)(。代)(表)(品)(种)(?)(?)(?)(958(?)(58x昌)(7-2)和)(先)(玉)(335(PH6WC×PH4CV)。改)(?)(了)(高)(?)(、大)(穗)(的)(品)(种)(模)(式)(,?)(耐)(密)(性)(作)(?)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(目)(?)(的)(核)(心)(,育)(种)(理)(念)(?)(一)(步)(?)(株)(型)(?)(?)(拓)(展)(至)(耐)(密)(性)(育)(种)(。适)(宜)(?)(化)(栽)(培)(管)(理)(和)(机)(械)(化)(作)(?)(,大)(大)(?)(?)(了)(成)(本)(,?)(少)(了)(?)(?)(力)(投)(入)(,适)(?)(了)(?)(前)(玉)(米)(主)(?)(?)(?)(村)(?)(?)(的)(?)(展)(?)(?)(。提)(升)(了)(我)(?)(玉)(米)(种)(?)(的)(?)(?)(力)(,?)(民)(族)(种)(?)(的)(?)(展)(?)(大)(做)(出)(了)(?)(极)(?)(?)(。同)(?)(使)(全)(?)(玉)(米)(?)(?)(由)(21世)(?)(初)(期)(的)(?)(320kg/?)(,增)(加)(到)(2011年)(382.4kg/?)(,增)(?)(19.5%。?)(确)(保)(我)(?)(?)(食)(安)(全)(做)(出)(了)(重)(要)(?)(?)(。
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在)(后)(335和)(958?)(代)(,?)(不)(能)(看)(出)(明)(?)(的)(?)(代)(品)(种)(。但)(可)(以)(明)(确)(方)(向)(是)(籽)(粒)(直)(收)(,目)(前)(市)(?)(看)(到)(的)(品)(种)(登)(海)(618和)(605,和)(育)(系)(列)(,?)(?)(887等)(品)(种)(?)(展)(?)(?)(迅)(猛)(。?)(?)(外)(?)(企)(?)(,尤)(其)(?)(洲)(种)(子)(公)(司)(的)(?)(入)(,?)(?)(我)(?)(种)(?)(?)(?)(新)(的)(育)(种)(思)(路)(和)(理)(念)(。
三)()美)(?)(种)(?)(?)(?)((育)(种)(体)(系)(,技)(?)(路)(?)(,投)(入)(等)()
美)(?)(玉)(米)(种)(子)(市)(?)(?)(在)(由)(少)(?)(几)(家)(大)(型)(种)(?)(?)(?)(。2014年)(市)(?)(占)(有)(率)(大)(?)(是)(孟)(山)(都)(35.5%,先)(?)(34.5%,先)(正)(?)(5.7%,AgReliant7%,DowsAgriSciences6%等)(。比)(?)(明)(?)(的)(特)(征)(是)(:1)生)(技)(工)(程)(在)(育)(种)(比)(重)(愈)(?)(愈)(高)(,分)(子)(育)(种)(,?)(基)(因)(及)(?)(?)(?)(理)(等)(投)(?)(太)(大)(,小)(型)(公)(司)(已)(?)(?)(有)(?)(?)(能)(力)(。因)(此)(?)(在)(美)(?)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(由)(少)(?)(大)(型)(公)(司)(?)(?)(。中)(小)(型)(公)(司)(大)(多)(已)(不)(存)(在)(。2)?)(民)(喜)(?)(种)(植)(?)(基)(因)(玉)(米)(,玉)(米)(?)(种)(如)(果)(?)(有)(?)(基)(因)(,?)(民)(不)(?)(去)(?)(?)(。美)(?)(?)(基)(因)(玉)(米)(栽)(培)(面)(?)(已)(?)(超)(?)(80%。因)(此)(?)(控)(制)(?)(基)(因)(,?)(就)(控)(制)(市)(?)(。3)孟)(山)(都)(玉)(米)(市)(?)(占)(有)(率)(接)(近)(40%。已)(?)(接)(近)(一)(半)(。如)(果)(超)(?)(50%,就)(?)(成)(?)(占)(。孟)(山)(都)(?)(?)(是)(?)(占)(的)(?)(?)(,?)(境)(污)(染)(?)(?)(及)(孟)(山)(都)(RR化)(?)(?)(?)(?)(利)(?)(已)(?)(?)(期)(,?)(有)(?)(?)(延)(期)(保)(?)(?)(?)(。因)(此)(?)(在)(任)(何)(人)(都)(可)(以)(生)(?)(制)(造)(RR化)(?)(?)(?)(。
美)(?)(?)(在)(玉)(米)(的)(育)(种)(理)(念)(是)(:1)75%玉)(米)(?)(量)(的)(增)(加)(是)(?)(自)(?)(?)(的)(改)(良)(。2)自)(交)(系)(的)(?)(量)(及)(?)(?)(性)(?)(?)(得)(不)(?)(改)(善)(。3)育)(种)(?)(划)(的)(架)(构)(符)(合)(商)(?)(?)(售)(策)(略)(。4)自)(?)(化)(育)(种)(程)(序)(,使)(用)(分)(子)(?)(?)(?)(助)(育)(种)(等)(?)(代)(科)(技)(手)(段)(,?)(大)(育)(种)(?)(模)(,增)(大)(育)(种)(?)(拔)(?)(力)(,以)(及)(一)(年)(四)(季)(?)(?)(栽)(培)(方)(法)(,可)(以)(加)(速)(?)(育)(最)(佳)(的)(自)(交)(系)(。5)?)(用)(新)(的)(育)(种)(方)(法)(?)(加)(速)(自)(交)(系)(的)(生)(?)(。比)(如)(?)(倍)(体)(的)(?)(用)(及)(向)(前)(育)(种)((ForwardBreeding)。向)(前)(育)(种)(是)(不)(需)(要)(利)(用)(回)(交)((Backcross)育)(种)(方)(法)(,?)(一)(?)(高)(?)(自)(交)(系)(与)(?)(基)(因)(供)(?)(?)(本)(?)(交)(后)(裔)(回)(交)(,而)(是)(直)(接)(使)(用)(?)(倍)(体)(方)(法)(,?)(生)(新)(的)(具)(有)(高)(?)(及)(?)(基)(因)(特)(性)(的)(新)(自)(交)(系)(。向)(后)(育)(种)((BackwardBreeding)是)(可)(以)(事)(先)(?)(定)(一)(?)(新)(自)(交)(系)(的)(?)(?)(?)(成)(,然)(后)(利)(用)(?)(?)(育)(种)(?)(料)(?)(?)(找)(到)(近)(似)(的)(?)(?)(高)(?)(自)(交)(系)(,?)(交)(后)(,使)(用)(?)(代)(育)(种)(手)(段)(很)(快)(?)(拔)(固)(定)(与)(?)(定)(目)(?)(自)(交)(系)(相)(同)(的)(?)(合)(?)(体)(。6)重)(新)(?)(合)(全)(球)(种)(?)(?)(源)(,增)(大)(育)(种)(种)(?)(?)(源)(的)(歧)(异)(性)(。7)?)(用)(分)(子)(?)(?)(?)(助)(?)(拔)((MAS或)(MarkerAssistedSelection)?)(促)(?)(成)(功)(机)(率)(,?)(少)(育)(种)(?)(?)(,?)(?)(?)(得)((GeneticGain)加)(倍)(。8)?)(基)(因)(性)(?)(?)(定)(市)(?)(占)(有)(率)(。9)?)(格)(的)(品)(?)(管)(制)(,保)(障)(种)(子)(健)(康)(,?)(芽)(率)(及)(增)(?)(?)(能)(。
美)(?)(政)(府)(及)(民)(?)(在)(玉)(米)(种)(?)(的)(投)(入)(,可)(以)(分)(?)(三)(?)(明)(?)(的)(?)(期)((?)(一)()。第)(一)(?)(?)(期)(是)(1930年)(到)(1950年)(,?)(?)(的)(民)(?)(种)(?)(?)(很)(脆)(弱)(,?)(金)(不)(足)(。因)(此)(需)(要)(政)(府)(的)(大)(力)(?)(?)(。政)(府)(及)(民)(?)(的)(科)(研)(投)(?)(大)(概)(是)(80%及)(20%比)(例)(。第)(二)(?)(?)(期)(是)(1950年)(到)(1980年)(。民)(?)(种)(?)(已)(?)(累)(?)(足)(?)(?)(金)(?)(?)(立)(?)(行)(自)(交)(系)(?)(育)(及)(科)(研)(?)(?)(。政)(府)(及)(民)(?)(的)(科)(研)(投)(?)(大)(概)(是)(各)(占)(一)(半)(。第)(三)(?)(?)(期)(是)(1980年)(以)(后)(,民)(?)(种)(?)(已)(?)(?)(展)(?)(大)(型)(跨)(?)(公)(司)(。?)(金)(雄)(厚)(。投)(?)(于)(分)(子)(育)(种)(及)(?)(基)(因)(的)(?)(?)(成)(倍)(增)(加)(。民)(?)(投)(?)(占)(70%以)(上)(。政)(府)(的)(科)(研)(投)(?)(?)(少)(到)(30%以)(下)(。政)(府)(的)(投)(入)(?)(1930年)(到)(1990年)(呈)(?)(定)(的)(微)(成)(?)(,1990年)(以)(后)(?)(始)(?)(少)(投)(入)(。放)(任)(民)(?)(公)(司)(自)(由)(兢)(?)(。美)(?)(?)(交)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(?)(?)(情)(形)(在)(1994年)(共)(有)(545位)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(家)(。
其)(中)(512位)((94%)服)(?)(于)(私)(人)(企)(?)(,33位)((6%)服)(?)(于)(大)(?)(或)(?)(?)(部)(公)(?)(?)(位)(。每)(一)(?)(育)(种)(家)(的)(每)(一)(年)(平)(均)(?)(算)(成)(本)(是)(20万)(美)(元)(。依)(据)(每)(人)(每)(年)(平)(均)(?)(算)(,可)(以)(大)(致)(估)(?)(政)(府)(及)(民)(?)(企)(?)(在)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(上)(面)(的)(投)(?)(?)(?)(。?)(1990年)(到)(1994年)(的)(5年)(?)(?)(,?)(?)(部)(每)(年)(?)(少)(2.5位)(育)(种)(家)(,而)(私)(?)(公)(司)(每)(年)(增)(加)(32名)(育)(种)(家)(。如)(果)(加)(入)(?)(接)(成)(本)(,包)(括)(建)(筑)(,?)(?)(,?)(器)(及)(管)(理)(等)(,?)(民)(?)(企)(?)(的)(投)(?)(更)(多)(。以)(1984年)(?)(?)(值)(?)(算)(,?)(1930年)(到)(1960年)(,民)(?)(企)(?)(每)(一)(年)(的)(科)(研)(投)(?)(是)(1千)(3百)(万)(美)(元)(,合)(?)(占)(?)(投)(?)(的)(13%。?)(1961年)(到)(1996年)(,民)(?)(企)(?)(每)(一)(年)(的)(科)(研)(投)(?)(是)(7千)(5百)(万)(美)(元)(,合)(?)(26?)(,占)(?)(投)(?)(的)(87%。1994年)(民)(?)(企)(?)(的)(科)(研)(投)(?)(是)(1?)(5千)(6百)(万)(美)(元)(,1995年)(民)(?)(企)(?)(的)(科)(研)(投)(?)(接)(近)(2?)(美)(元)(。目)(前)(民)(?)(企)(?)(每)(一)(年)(的)(科)(研)(投)(?)(成)(?)(更)(快)(,然)(而)(?)(具)(体)(?)(?)(?)(料)(可)(供)(?)(考)(。(Frey,1996;Fernandez-Corejo,et.al.,2004;Crosbie,et.al.,2006)。
?)(一)(:美)(?)(政)(府)(及)(民)(?)(在)(玉)(米)(种)(?)(?)(展)(的)(投)(?)(比)(?)(
最)(上)(面)(一)(?)(?)(是)(?)(投)(?)(。中)(?)(是)(民)(?)(投)(?)(。下)(面)(一)(?)(?)(是)(美)(?)(政)(府)(的)(科)(研)(投)(?)(
美)(?)(玉)(米)(种)(?)(在)(系)(?)(化)(育)(种)(,?)(?)(分)(工)(,分)(子)(技)(?)(,?)(基)(因)(,?)(?)(?)(理)(,及)(化)(?)(?)(虫)(,?)(草)(?)(等)(方)(面)(,?)(先)(世)(界)(其)(他)(?)(家)(。种)(子)(的)(加)(工)(技)(?)(完)(善)(,化)(?)(包)(衣)(?)(理)(先)(?)(,可)(以)(有)(效)(控)(制)(土)(壤)(?)(菌)(及)(昆)(虫)(,保)(障)(种)(子)(?)(芽)(及)(早)(期)(幼)(苗)(的)(生)(育)(良)(好)(。已)(?)(?)(?)(?)(用)(的)(分)(子)(技)(?)(包)(括)(自)(交)(系)(及)(?)(交)(种)(全)(基)(因)(?)(分)(析)((GenomeWideAnalysis),基)(因)(型)(?)(拔)((MarkerBasedGenotypicSelection),基)(因)(平)(台)((GenotypingPlatforms),?)(量)(性)(?)(定)(位)((QTL或)(QuantitativeTraitLoci),性)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)((TraitAssociationSelection),分)(子)(?)(?)(?)(助)(?)(拔)((MAS或)(MarkerAssistedSelection),?)(一)(核)(?)(多)(型)(性)(分)(析)((SNP或)(SingleNucleotidePolymorphism),分)(子)(?)(?)(?)(助)(的)(回)(交)(育)(种)((MABC或)(MarkerAssistedBackcross),分)(子)(?)(?)(?)(助)(的)(?)(回)(?)(拔)((MARS或)(MarkerAssistedRecurrentSelection),蛋)(白)(?)(剖)(析)((ProteinProfile)以)(及)(代)(?)(功)(能)(研)(究)((Metanomics)等)(。美)(?)(?)(基)(因)(技)(?)(在)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(及)(?)(用)(推)(?)(上)(面)(,非)(常)(成)(功)(。表)(一)(是)(美)(?)(?)(基)(因)(玉)(米)(栽)(培)(面)(?)(?)(充)(的)(情)(形)(。美)(?)(只)(用)(了)(14年)(的)(?)(?)(,?)(基)(因)(玉)(米)(的)(栽)(培)(面)(?)(就)(?)(到)(80%以)(上)(。中)(?)(除)(了)(抗)(虫)(棉)(之)(外)(,2009年)(11月)(27日)(又)(核)(准)(?)(基)(因)(抗)(虫)(水)(稻)((BtRice)及)(?)(基)(因)(植)(酸)(?)(玉)(米)((PhytaseCorn)。可)(?)(中)(?)(?)(在)(也)(非)(常)(重)(?)(?)(基)(因)(的)(?)(展)(。
?)(基)(因)(是)(?)(入)(?)(胞)(外)(源)(?)(?)(基)(因)(而)(改)(?)(?)(胞)(染)(色)(体)(?)(基)(因)(的)(?)(成)(。?)(基)(因)(的)(?)(展)(?)(序)(及)(方)(法)(是)(1947年)(?)(合)(生)(殖)((Conjugation,JoshuaLederberg),1953年)(感)(染)((Transduction,JoshuaLederberg),1972年)(氯)(化)(?)((CaCl2,S.Cohen,A.Chang,L.Hsu)?)(?)(,1983年)(?)(?)(菌)((Agrobacteria,I.K.Vasil),1987年)(?)(?)(穿)(孔)((Electroporation,Hauptmann等)(),1990年)(粒)(子)(?)(穿)(孔)((ParticleGunBombartment,Sanford),及)(1990年)(矽)(碳)(?)(毛)((SiliconCarbideWhisker,Kaeppler)。孟)(山)(都)(抗)(?)(草)(?)(?)(基)(因)(的)(?)(展)(情)(形)(是)(1984年)(?)(曼)(陀)(?)((Petunia)克)(隆)(EPSPS基)(因)((5-Enol-PyruvylShikimate-3-PhosphateSynthase)。1986年)(?)(得)(第)(一)(株)(抗)(?)(草)(?)(Glyphosate植)(株)(。1987年)(第)(一)(次)(?)(准)(?)(行)(田)(?)(?)(?)(。1989年)(克)(隆)(CP4-EPSPS基)(因)(。1990年)(?)(CP4-EPSPS基)(因)(?)(植)(?)(豆)(,棉)(花)(,玉)(米)(。1993年)(确)(定)(?)(基)(因)(抗)(?)(草)(?)(特)(性)(?)(定)(。1996年)(?)(始)(?)(售)(RR抗)(?)(草)(?)(?)(豆)(。1997年)(?)(始)(?)(售)(RR抗)(?)(草)(?)(棉)(花)(。1998年)(?)(始)(?)(售)(RR抗)(?)(草)(?)(玉)(米)(。?)(理)(?)(?)(?)(,?)(品)(研)(?)(,到)(?)(?)(?)(售)(,前)(后)(共)(?)(12年)(。依)(据)(?)(?)(?)(?)(生)(技)(?)(用)(?)(展)(服)(?)(?)(告)(,玉)(米)(常)(?)(育)(种)(的)(增)(?)(效)(果)(比)(天)(然)(授)(粉)(明)(?)(,常)(?)(育)(种)(?)(合)(分)(子)(技)(?)(的)(增)(?)(效)(果)(比)(常)(?)(育)(种)(明)(?)(,常)(?)(育)(种)(?)(合)(分)(子)(技)(?)(及)(?)(基)(因)(的)(增)(?)(效)(果)(比)(常)(?)(育)(种)(?)(合)(分)(子)(技)(?)(的)(增)(?)(效)(果)(明)(?)(。因)(此)(未)(?)(玉)(米)(育)(种)(的)(?)(展)(方)(向)(,必)(然)(是)(常)(?)(育)(种)(,分)(子)(技)(?)(,?)(?)(系)(?)(及)(?)(基)(因)(相)(互)(?)(合)(的)(高)(?)(出)(系)(?)(化)(育)(种)(。
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四)()中)(?)(种)(?)(?)(?)((育)(种)(体)(系)(,技)(?)(路)(?)(,投)(入)(等)()
在)(我)(?)(承)(?)(育)(种)(任)(?)(的)(主)(要)(是)(?)(?)(科)(研)(和)(教)(?)(?)(位)(。我)(?)(?)(有)(440多)(家)(公)(共)(科)(研)(?)(位)(?)(事)(种)(子)(研)(?)(。由)(于)(缺)(乏)(?)(一)(布)(局)(,育)(种)(任)(?)(分)(工)(不)(明)(确)(,低)(水)(平)(重)(复)(、?)(育)(品)(种)(雷)(同)(?)(象)(?)(重)(。种)(子)(企)(?)(的)(育)(种)(能)(力)(很)(低)(,?)(大)(多)(?)(的)(公)(司)(几)(乎)(?)(有)(研)(?)(机)(构)(和)(科)(研)(人)(?)(。
中)(?)(种)(子)(企)(?)(?)(模)(小)(,?)(金)(有)(限)(,大)(都)(不)(具)(?)(科)(技)(?)(新)(能)(力)(,?)(然)(有)(少)(?)(企)(?)(自)(身)(也)(?)(事)(科)(研)(育)(种)(,但)(其)(?)(?)(科)(研)(?)(件)(、科)(研)(人)(?)(?)(量)(、科)(研)(能)(力)(同)(美)(?)(跨)(?)(种)(?)(公)(司)(差)(距)(甚)(?)(。
据)(2014年)(的)(?)(据)(,中)(?)(?)(作)(物)(种)(子)(市)(?)(价)(值)(?)(650?)(元)(人)(民)(?)(,位)(居)(世)(界)(第)(二)(位)(,?)(?)(便)(有)(分)(析)(?)(?)(,中)(?)(有)(望)(在)(2015年)(超)(越)(美)(?)(成)(?)(全)(球)(最)(大)(的)(种)(子)(?)(售)(市)(?)(。外)(界)(?)(?)(,中)(?)(化)(工)(收)(?)(全)(球)(第)(三)(大)(种)(子)(公)(司)(先)(正)(?)(,重)(要)(原)(因)(之)(一)(便)(是)(看)(中)(其)(种)(子)(?)(?)(。(注)(:因)(?)(下)(?)(的)(?)(?)(一)(定)(是)(生)(物)(技)(?)(,因)(此)(?)(?)(看)(重)(的)(?)(基)(因)(技)(?)(。不)(?)(中)(?)(化)(工)(,中)(?)(集)(?)(已)(?)(收)(?)(荷)(?)(的)(Nidera,?)(公)(司)(在)(南)(美)(市)(?)(有)(很)(高)(的)(市)(?)(份)(?)(。)2016年)(,被)(很)(多)(?)(?)(人)(士)(?)(?)(中)(?)(“种)(?)(元)(年)(”。
?)(?)(去)(100年)(的)(世)(界)(?)(?)(?)(展)(?)(?)(看)(,?)(?)(生)(?)(效)(率)(的)(提)(升)(,60%?)(源)(于)(种)(子)(技)(?)(。如)(何)(提)(高)(?)(?)(生)(?)(效)(率)(?答)(案)(似)(乎)(只)(有)(一)(?)(:种)(子)(改)(良)(。而)(我)(?)(政)(府)(也)(已)(多)(次)(提)(出)(?)(公)(司)(作)(?)(?)(新)(的)(主)(体)(。因)(此)(,种)(?)(公)(司)(?)(是)(种)(子)(改)(良)(的)(主)(体)(。
自)(2000年)(《种)(子)(法)(》?)(布)(之)(后)(,中)(?)(种)(?)(?)(?)(了)(市)(?)(化)(的)(征)(程)(。各)(路)(?)(本)(?)(?)(?)(入)(种)(?)(市)(?)(,大)(大)(小)(小)(的)(种)(?)(公)(司)(如)(雨)(后)(春)(?)(般)(冒)(出)(,有)(民)(?)(的)(和)(中)(外)(合)(?)(的)(、有)(科)(研)(院)(所)(自)(?)(的)(、有)(?)(技)(推)(?)(人)(?)(“自)(立)(?)(?)(”的)(,甚)(至)(?)(有)(“皮)(包)(公)(司)(”。媒)(体)(?)(道)(的)(?)(据)(?)(示)(,中)(?)(?)(有)(4468家)(种)(子)(企)(?)(,其)(中)(,玉)(米)(种)(子)(公)(司)(大)(?)(3000多)(家)(,育)(繁)(推)(一)(体)(化)(的)(种)(子)(企)(?)(77家)(,前)(十)(?)(种)(?)(企)(?)(?)(售)(?)(不)(到)(种)(?)(市)(?)(的)(20%,前)(50?)(市)(?)(集)(中)(度)(也)(?)(有)(35%。?)(与)(世)(界)(种)(子)(市)(?)(高)(度)(集)(中)(的)(格)(局)(相)(比)(,?)(存)(在)(巨)(大)(的)(差)(距)(。根)(据)(?)(?)(?)(据)(,2015年)(界)(Top10大)(种)(?)(公)(司)(在)(全)(球)(市)(?)(上)(已)(?)(形)(成)(寡)(?)(?)(?)(地)(位)(,市)(?)(份)(?)(超)(?)(75%?)(Top3(孟)(山)(都)(、先)(?)(和)(先)(正)(?)()的)(比)(重)(就)(超)(?)(了)(50%。而)(我)(?)(的)(种)(?)(公)(司)(研)(?)(投)(入)(不)(到)(?)(售)(?)(的)(1%,?)(大)(部)(分)(的)(企)(?)(小)(而)(散)(,甚)(至)(?)(研)(?)(部)(?)(。因)(此)(,?)(期)(以)(?)(,中)(?)(种)(?)(研)(?)(的)(核)(心)(在)(科)(研)(院)(所)(而)(非)(企)(?)(。据)(悉)(,88%的)(品)(种)(出)(自)(科)(研)(?)(位)(。据)(悉)(,目)(前)(,?)(有)(研)(?)(?)(新)(能)(力)(的)(?)(?)(种)(子)(企)(?)(不)(到)(?)(?)(的)(1.5%,?)(大)(部)(分)(企)(?)(研)(?)(投)(入)(一)(般)(在)(其)(?)(售)(?)(的)(1%,甚)(至)(不)(及)(1%。
五)()?)(展)(中)(?)(?)(代)(种)(?)(的)(?)(策)(
美)(?)(种)(?)(在)(大)(型)(化)(?)(公)(司)(介)(入)(后)(,?)(?)(不)(?)(的)(?)(手)(,兼)(并)(,增)(?)(和)(重)(?)(,已)(?)(成)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(?)(化)(集)(?)(。具)(有)(充)(足)(的)(?)(?)(及)(几)(乎)(?)(限)(的)(?)(展)(?)(能)(。尤)(其)(是)(在)(系)(?)(化)(育)(种)(,?)(?)(分)(工)(,分)(子)(技)(?)(,?)(基)(因)(,?)(据)(及)(信)(息)(?)(理)(,及)(化)(?)(?)(虫)(,?)(草)(?)(等)(方)(面)(,?)(先)(世)(界)(其)(他)(?)(家)(。美)(?)(种)(?)(?)(?)(优)(?)(主)(要)(有)(:1)高)(品)(?)(,高)(?)(芽)(率)(的)(优)(良)(种)(子)(。2)?)(格)(种)(子)(生)(?)(操)(作)(流)(程)(。3)具)(有)(品)(种)(?)(或)(?)(利)(的)(自)(交)(系)(,品)(种)(及)(?)(基)(因)(性)(?)(。?)(品)(具)(有)(唯)(一)(性)(及)(?)(占)(性)(。4)先)(?)(的)(生)(物)(技)(?)(及)(系)(?)(化)(育)(种)(。5)完)(善)(的)(?)(售)(体)(系)(和)(网)(?)(。及)(6)?)(本)(雄)(厚)(等)(。中)(?)(种)(?)(比)(?)(年)(?)(,正)(在)(起)(步)(的)(?)(段)(。生)(存)(?)(?)(的)(能)(力)(比)(?)(脆)(弱)(。不)(能)(与)(大)(型)(?)(?)(种)(?)(公)(司)(?)(?)(。中)(?)(种)(?)(?)(?)(是)(:1)?)(家)(?)(行)(品)(种)(?)(定)(及)(品)(种)(保)(?)(。2)生)(物)(科)(技)(起)(步)(晚)(,目)(前)(尚)(?)(掌)(控)(市)(?)(的)(具)(?)(?)(力)(且)(?)(有)(自)(主)(知)(?)(?)(?)(?)(基)(因)(。?)(瑞)(金)(植)(酸)(?)(可)(能)(是)(第)(一)(?)(玉)(米)(商)(用)(?)(基)(因)(,在)(2016年)(5月)(与)(先)(?)(?)(成)(合)(作)(?)(?)(?)(基)(因)(性)(?)(?)(?)(;目)(前)(有)(私)(?)(公)(司)(大)(北)(?)(生)(物)(技)(?)(、中)(种)(生)(物)(技)(?)(等)(?)(展)(?)(?)(迅)(猛)(,?)(家)(科)(研)(?)(位)(有)(中)(?)(?)(科)(院)(,中)(?)(?)(大)(和)(?)(中)(?)(大)(等)(3)种)(?)(尚)(年)(?)(,近)(5000家)(种)(子)(公)(司)(,?)(大)(型)(企)(?)(,?)(本)(太)(弱)(,科)(研)(投)(?)(很)(少)(,?)(法)(推)(行)(先)(?)(科)(研)(?)(划)(,?)(以)(与)(美)(?)(种)(?)(有)(效)(?)(?)(。4)种)(子)(的)(?)(量)(及)(品)(?)(均)(低)(于)(美)(?)(。种)(?)(市)(?)(混)(?)(,?)(有)(效)(的)(系)(?)(?)(?)(体)(系)(。5)都)(是)(家)(族)(?)(?)(的)(种)(?)(,看)(重)(眼)(前)(利)(益)(,?)(未)(?)(?)(在)(的)(?)(迫)(感)(及)(危)(机)(。中)(?)(种)(?)(的)(科)(?)(技)(?)(落)(差)(太)(大)(,如)(果)(再)(不)(能)(?)(?)(,同)(心)(同)(力)(,找)(出)(?)(?)(的)(方)(法)(。中)(?)(种)(?)(持)(?)(?)(展)(的)(前)(景)(可)(?)(。因)(此)(?)(?)(使)(用)(一)(切)(必)(要)(的)(手)(段)(,措)(施)(及)(方)(法)(?)(保)(障)(?)(家)(私)(?)(种)(?)(的)(生)(存)(及)(良)(性)(的)(?)(展)(?)(大)(。表)(二)(是)(中)(美)(种)(?)(的)(一)(些)(比)(?)(。
我)(?)(?)(?)(中)(?)(一)(定)(可)(以)(?)(?)(一)(套)(适)(合)(中)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(的)(种)(?)(体)(制)(。中)(?)(手)(机)(及)(移)(?)(互)(?)(网)(行)(?)(的)(?)(展)(,?)(明)(中)(?)(可)(以)(?)(道)(超)(?)(,通)(?)(最)(新)(技)(?)((CRISPER等)(基)(因)(?)(?)(技)(?)()跨)(越)(式)(思)(?)(的)(正)(确)(性)(。
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1)公)(司)(自)(身)(?)(展)(:要)(使)(用)(一)(切)(可)(行)(的)(方)(法)(,包)(括)(借)(助)(外)(?)(?)(源)(,建)(立)(?)(在)(?)(因)(,加)(?)(?)(?)(合)(作)(等)(。包)(括)(?)(?)(或)(合)(作)(使)(用)(?)(利)(技)(?)(,并)(?)(?)(外)(生)(技)(或)(育)(种)(公)(司)(,共)(同)(研)(?)(,以)(及)(使)(用)(具)(有)(?)(?)(成)(就)(的)(?)(家)(?)(者)(等)(。
2)?)(家)(支)(持)(:?)(助)(一)(?)(?)(大)(型)(种)(?)(公)(司)(在)(生)(技)(工)(程)(,?)(基)(因)(及)(市)(?)(上)(面)(做)(?)(做)(大)(。完)(善)(相)(?)(法)(律)(和)(知)(?)(?)(?)(保)(?)(体)(系)(。加)(大)(种)(?)(科)(技)(投)(入)(?)(家)(和)(各)(省)(要)(?)(?)(?)(前)(的)(科)(研)(?)(位)(基)(?)(情)(?)(,根)(据)(种)(?)(?)(展)(的)(?)(?)(需)(求)(,在)(重)(?)(?)(科)(和)(部)(?)(,?)(真)(梳)(理)(,?)(成)(?)(优)(?)(攻)(?)(?)(科)(或)(攻)(?)(?)(位)(。根)(据)(科)(研)(的)(工)(作)(安)(排)(?)(行)(持)(久)(投)(入)(、?)(和)(的)(投)(入)(,打)(造)(出)(?)(大)(的)(科)(研)(?)(?)(,?)(?)(和)(引)(?)(中)(?)(种)(?)(的)(?)(展)(。
2.1)改)(革)(科)(技)(?)(新)(机)(制)(
科)(技)(?)(新)(是)(种)(?)(?)(展)(的)(核)(心)(力)(量)(,?)(?)(在)(于)(人)(才)(。?)(家)(政)(府)(一)(定)(要)(制)(定)(出)(特)(殊)(的)(人)(才)(?)(略)(,有)(利)(于)(科)(技)(?)(新)(。
2.2)整)(合)(种)(?)(?)(源)(,做)(大)(做)(?)(中)(?)(种)(?)(
A.制)(定)(优)(惠)(政)(策)(,鼓)(?)(“?)(、?)(、研)(”?)(合)(。政)(府)(扶)(持)(?)(家)(?)(?)(种)(子)(企)(?)(主)(?)(走)(出)(去)(,把)(企)(?)(急)(需)(的)(科)(技)(力)(量)(或)(科)(研)(成)(果)(?)(到)(企)(?)(里)(?)(,加)(?)(科)(研)(和)(?)(化)(科)(研)(成)(果)(?)(化)(。
B.制)(定)(优)(惠)(政)(策)(,扶)(持)(种)(?)(及)(种)(?)(科)(研)(?)(展)(。?)(家)(和)(地)(方)(要)(在)(?)(政)(和)(?)(收)(等)(方)(面)(?)(予)(种)(?)(更)(优)(惠)(的)(政)(策)(,助)(推)(重)(?)(种)(?)(的)(?)(展)(。
C.增)(加)(?)(企)(?)(科)(研)(的)(立)(?)(投)(入)(,特)(?)(是)(?)(重)(?)(的)(企)(?)(科)(研)(部)(?)(?)(予)(重)(?)(?)(政)(支)(持)(。鼓)(?)(企)(?)(科)(技)(?)(新)(,?)(一)(步)(加)(大)(企)(?)(优)(秀)(品)(种)(的)(科)(技)(成)(果)(?)(化)(的)(政)(策)(和)(?)(政)(支)(持)(力)(度)(,使)(科)(研)(成)(果)(快)(速)(有)(效)(的)(?)(化)(?)(生)(?)(力)(。
D.加)(?)(种)(?)(的)(管)(理)(,提)(高)(种)(子)(企)(?)(的)(?)(?)(。政)(府)(?)(?)(有)(的)(种)(子)(企)(?)(加)(?)(管)(理)(,采)(取)(兼)(并)(、重)(?)(、?)(停)(等)(措)(施)(,清)(理)(种)(子)(企)(?)(的)("多)(、小)(、?)("?)(?)(,?)(格)(治)(理)(种)(?)(的)(市)(?)(?)(境)(扶)(优)(做)(?)(种)(?)(。
E.加)(大)(种)(?)(知)(?)(?)(?)(的)(保)(?)(力)(度)(,鼓)(?)(科)(技)(?)(新)(。?)(前)(种)(?)(市)(?)(?)(?)(?)(境)(复)(?)(,很)(多)(小)(企)(?)(依)(靠)(?)(取)(?)(人)(的)(科)(研)(成)(果)(生)(存)(?)(象)(?)(很)(?)(重)(,政)(府)(要)(?)(一)(步)(加)(大)(市)(?)(?)(?)(管)(理)(力)(度)(和)(知)(?)(?)(?)(保)(?)(措)(施)(,使)(中)(?)(种)(?)(健)(康)(?)(展)(。
六)()?)(?)(
美)(?)(自)(1920年)(代)(确)(定)(?)(交)(玉)(米)(优)(?)(及)(?)(展)(方)(向)(之)(后)(,早)(期)(自)(交)(系)(的)(研)(究)(?)(展)(都)(是)(由)(政)(府)(部)(?)(投)(?)(?)(行)(。私)(人)(种)(?)(?)(政)(府)(部)(?)(?)(得)(好)(的)(自)(交)(系)(?)(?)(行)(?)(交)(玉)(米)(的)(?)(育)(,推)(?)(及)(?)(售)(。私)(?)(种)(?)(在)(?)(去)(80年)(的)(?)(?)(,?)(?)(金)(短)(缺)(,小)(型)(家)(族)(企)(?)(,?)(?)(了)(?)(本)(累)(?)(,自)(交)(系)(?)(育)(,高)(?)(?)(交)(种)(研)(?)(,兼)(并)(增)(?)(?)(充)(,?)(立)(研)(?)(分)(子)(及)(?)(基)(因)(等)(先)(?)(技)(?)(,知)(?)(?)(?)(及)(?)(利)(保)(?)(不)(?)(完)(善)(,以)(及)(大)(型)(跨)(?)(公)(司)(?)(?)(市)(?)(等)(?)(展)(?)(程)(,已)(?)(展)(成)(技)(?)(?)(?)(,系)(?)(化)(,自)(主)(化)(及)(?)(?)(化)(种)(?)(?)(构)(。集)(育)(种)(,研)(?)(,生)(?)(,加)(工)(及)(?)(售)(于)(一)(身)(的)(大)(型)(跨)(?)(集)(?)(。科)(研)(投)(?)(已)(?)(超)(?)(政)(府)(公)(共)(研)(究)(部)(?)(。并)(具)(有)(影)(?)(左)(右)(未)(?)(?)(?)(种)(?)(?)(展)(的)(能)(力)(。根)(据)(pioneer2015年)(在)(美)(?)(和)(加)(拿)(大)(?)(行)(的)(?)(查)(?)(示)(,?)(有)(10%的)(种)(植)(密)(度)(?)(36,000+株)(/英)(?)(,1/3的)(种)(植)(密)(度)(?)(33,000-36,000株)(/英)(?)(,1/3的)(种)(植)(密)(度)(?)(30,000-33,000株)(/英)(?)(。种)(子)(价)(格)(?)(130美)(元)(/英)(?)(。玉)(米)(种)(价)(占)(美)(?)(所)(有)(种)(子)(价)(格)(的)(33%。美)(?)(前)(4家)(种)(?)(占)(?)(85%美)(?)(玉)(米)(种)(子)(市)(?)(。目)(前)(美)(?)(真)(正)(可)(以)(?)(事)(?)(立)(研)(?)(的)(种)(?)(,已)(?)(不)(足)(100家)(。
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中)(?)(种)(?)(的)(起)(步)(比)(?)(晚)(,只)(有)(30多)(年)(的)(?)(史)(。比)(?)(年)(?)(,?)(有)(超)(大)(型)(?)(?)(性)(公)(司)(。目)(前)(有)(4468家)(种)(子)(公)(司)(,其)(中)(,玉)(米)(种)(子)(公)(司)(?)(3000多)(家)(,但)(多)(?)(?)(家)(族)(?)(?)(的)(小)(作)(坊)(。?)(金)(短)(缺)(,研)(?)(投)(?)(很)(少)(。科)(研)(正)(在)(起)(步)(,?)(?)(有)(?)(?)(效)(果)(。?)(有)(全)(面)(的)(?)(据)(?)(系)(?)(,不)(能)(有)(效)(促)(?)(科)(研)(效)(果)(。政)(府)(政)(策)(不)(确)(定)(,?)(售)(体)(制)(不)(建)(全)(,品)(?)(管)(控)(不)(好)(,种)(子)(?)(品)(?)(量)(?)(差)(,?)(可)(用)(的)(?)(基)(因)(,更)(是)(雪)(上)(加)(霜)(,?)(?)(法)(与)(外)(?)(种)(子)(?)(?)(。在)(目)(前)(种)(?)(?)(展)(脆)(弱)(的)(?)(候)(,政)(府)(政)(策)(?)(?)(大)(力)(?)(斜)(,?)(一)(些)(具)(有)(?)(模)(的)(种)(?)(能)(?)(在)(政)(府)(的)(?)(助)(下)(做)(?)(做)(大)(。能)(?)(在)(未)(?)(?)(?)(平)(衡)(?)(?)(中)(?)(玉)(米)(种)(?)(市)(?)(的)(功)(能)(,才)(是)(正)(确)(的)(?)(展)(方)(向)(。
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