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??:城市化、??化和???构的高度化——未?二十年中????展基?的判?(1994)

?源: 南方日?网?版     ??: 2018年10月16日 14:03:09
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英超-控球碾?疑似漏判?球 曼?半?0-0升班? ?老??哭!咱?是好好?鞋吧! | BSED.你不知道的事 英超-?尼洛世界波斯特林失空? 曼城1-1遭逼平 曼城?分:魔翼世界波???最佳 德布??低迷 ??平昌冬??不妙!俄?集体遭禁?,想邀????手???大? 巴黎首?:姆巴佩停? 阿??斯???首?登? ??再?!27?的排球女神惠若琪退役了 她用生命????排球的????? ??盯上“男人的衣柜”!不?25?入股,?做了?件事 ?市明今天???光!冉??助他霸气复出,手持?旗又成中??傲 走?!?神+?框成曼城遮羞布 1?疾不治真不行 ??!琱j2-1??丹超第一球?!卡?瓦???身?首胜返回?州 【冬?】短道?出?平昌?鼓?行 臧一?惊喜?身送??友 阿拉基:有些疲?需??差 最后一球?手防的好 郎平祝惠若琪多生女儿?自培?女排三代 郎平宣布惠若琪??退役 ??梁再???光!女儿??三年???冠?,?妻一言令人感?

(原)(?)(?)(:?)(?)(:城)(市)(化)(、?)(?)(化)(和)(?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(高)(度)(化)(——未)(?)(二)(十)(年)(中)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(基)(?)(的)(判)(?)((1994)
?)(者)(?)(:
九)(十)(年)(代)(后)(期)(,城)(市)(化)(、?)(?)(化)(和)(?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(高)(度)(化)(是)(我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(?)(一)(步)(?)(?)(小)(康)(水)(平)(并)(向)(中)(等)(收)(入)(?)(家)(?)(?)(的)(?)(生)(性)(需)(要)(,也)(是)(?)(家)(?)(?)(政)(策)(和)(?)(期)(?)(划)(的)(聚)(合)(?)(,本)(文)(?)(述)(了)(80年)(代)(中)(期)(至)(1992年)(初)(我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(的)(新)(?)(象)(、新)(?)(?)(以)(及)(新)(?)(?)(下)(的)(?)(?)(政)(策)(?)(型)(。敬)(?)(?)(?)(。
文)(/?)(?)((?)(家)(?)(展)(和)(改)(革)(委)(?)(?)(副)(主)(任)()
90年)(代)(以)(?)(?)(民)(?)(?)(的)(高)(速)(增)(?)(表)(明)(,?)(城)(市)(化)(的)(渴)(求)(、?)(?)(收)(支)(?)(力)(增)(大)(、外)(?)(大)(量)(流)(入)(和)(新)(?)(?)(投)(?)(?)(增)(等)(?)(象)(,已)(非)(短)(期)(周)(期)(性)(波)(?)(所)(能)(解)(?)(。可)(以)(肯)(定)(地)(?)(,?)(是)(我)(?)(人)(均)(收)(入)(提)(高)(后)(,引)(起)(的)(?)(?)(?)(构)(?)(?)(?)(象)(。?)(局)(部)(出)(?)(,是)(?)(法)(理)(解)(甚)(至)(解)(?)(?)(些)(?)(象)(的)(,唯)(有)(?)(构)(性)(的)(分)(析)(方)(法)(才)(能)(使)(我)(?)(?)(光)(怪)(?)(离)(的)(?)(象)(中)(解)(?)(出)(?)(,抓)(住)(其)(主)(要)(的)(?)(展)(?)(索)(。在)(90年)(代)(后)(期)(,城)(市)(化)(、?)(?)(化)(和)(?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(高)(度)(化)(是)(我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(?)(一)(步)(?)(?)(小)(康)(水)(平)(并)(向)(中)(等)(收)(入)(?)(家)(?)(?)(的)(?)(生)(性)(需)(要)(,也)(是)(?)(家)(?)(?)(政)(策)(和)(?)(期)(?)(划)(的)(聚)(合)(?)(。
一)(、我)(?)(?)(?)(新)(的)(?)(展)(?)(象)(
80年)(代)(中)(期)(至)(1992年)(初)(,我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(不)(同)(于)(以)(往)(之)(?)(的)(特)(?)(在)(于)(:第)(一)(,以)(?)(?)(企)(?)(?)(?)(志)(的)(?)(?)(生)(?)(力)(的)(解)(放)(及)(城)(?)(工)(?)(的)(?)(合)(;第)(二)(,消)(?)(需)(求)(作)(?)(?)(?)(主)(?)(?)(量)(地)(位)(的)(确)(定)(;第)(三)(,?)(基)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(的)(普)(遍)(重)(?)(及)(其)(良)(性)(循)(?)(机)(制)(的)(逐)(步)(出)(?)(;第)(四)(,外)(?)(、外)(?)(由)(“拾)(?)(?)(缺)(”的)(地)(位)(上)(升)(?)(重)(要)(的)(增)(?)(?)(源)(;第)(五)(,地)(?)(?)(?)(活)(?)(。?)(1992年)(春)(季)(起)(,中)(?)(?)(?)(改)(革)(和)(?)(放)(的)(?)(?)(引)(起)(世)(人)(的)(震)(?)(。巨)(大)(的)(?)(在)(市)(?)(,?)(万)(人)(致)(富)(的)(?)(情)(和)(?)(?)(体)(制)(的)(?)(?)(性)(?)(化)(,?)(世)(界)(?)(?)(?)(展)(?)(?)(了)(新)(的)(希)(望)(和)(幻)(想)(。据)(世)(界)(?)(行)(一)(份)(?)(部)(?)(告)(估)(?)(,以)(中)(?)(?)(主)(的)(?)(?)(?)(?)(正)(在)(改)(?)(世)(界)(格)(局)(。?)(?)(告)(分)(析)(,1992年)(?)(?)(地)(?)(的)(?)(口)(?)(已)(?)(到)(724。?)(美)(元)(,其)(?)(?)(已)(超)(?)(美)(?)(。更)(?)(惊)(人)(的)(判)(?)(是)(,?)(?)(在)(起)(到)(2000年)(,?)(?)(地)(?)(的)(?)(?)(力)(增)(量)(?)(占)(全)(球)(增)(量)(的)(50%,其)(?)(力)(之)(大)(,足)(以)(?)(世)(界)(?)(?)(?)(生)(?)(?)(性)(的)(影)(?)(。形)(?)(是)(?)(?)(的)(,但)(?)(?)(?)(家)(的)(任)(?)(不)(只)(是)(鼓)(?)(人)(心)(,而)(在)(于)(抓)(住)(新)(的)(有)(代)(表)(性)(的)(?)(向)(,提)(出)(?)(策)(。中)(?)(出)(?)(了)(前)(所)(未)(有)(的)(?)(?)(22?)(月)(的)(高)(速)(增)(?)(,?)(?)(?)(?)(正)(作)(?)(一)(?)(?)(期)(?)(象)(而)(?)(?)(,而)(不)(是)(短)(期)(的)(?)(?)(政)(策)(或)(?)(政)(政)(策)(的)(?)(果)(。在)(?)(次)(高)(速)(增)(?)(?)(程)(之)(中)(,有)(些)(作)(?)(80年)(代)(增)(?)(特)(征)(的)(?)(象)(被)(?)(一)(步)(?)(化)(,新)(的)(特)(征)(逐)(步)(?)(?)(。
(一)()新)(消)(?)(需)(求)(的)(形)(成)(。
?)(汽)(?)(、?)(子)(及)(通)(信)(?)(品)(的)(?)(?)(分)(析)(表)(明)(,?)(些)(?)(品)(的)(?)(?)(市)(?)(正)(在)(逐)(步)(形)(成)(,并)(快)(速)(?)(?)(,其)(市)(?)(份)(?)(中)(家)(庭)(消)(?)(的)(重)(要)(作)(用)(逐)(?)(?)(大)(。一)(份)(研)(究)(?)(告)(指)(出)(,私)(人)(?)(?)(保)(有)(量)(直)(?)(上)(升)(。北)(京)(自)(1986年)(以)(?)(,私)(人)(?)(?)(以)(每)(年)(274%的)(速)(度)(增)(加)(。通)(?)(?)(的)(研)(究)(?)(告)(指)(出)(,?)(?)(及)(服)(?)(的)(增)(?)(率)(居)(高)(不)(下)(,私)(人)(?)(?)(以)(51%的)(速)(度)(增)(?)(。至)(于)(私)(人)(住)(房)(,增)(?)(的)(速)(度)(更)(快)(。?)(表)(明)(,我)(?)(居)(民)(消)(?)(重)(心)(正)(由)(食)(品)(、服)(?)(和)(一)(般)(家)(用)(?)(器)(,?)(向)(包)(括)(住)(房)(、?)(?)(、汽)(?)(等)(高)(?)(大)(宗)(耐)(用)(品)(。?)(?)(?)(化)(暗)(示)(?)(?)(多)(?)(容)(,?)(某)(种)(意)(?)(上)(?)(?)(,由)(于)(?)(种)(?)(化)(,?)(定)(?)(?)(的)(含)(?)(已)(与)(80年)(代)(的)(定)(?)(迥)(然)(不)(同)(,而)(促)(?)(?)(本)(和)(技)(?)(含)(量)(高)(的)(支)(柱)(?)(?)(?)(展)(,今)(后)(?)(成)(?)(与)(?)(?)(和)(?)(?)(收)(支)(平)(衡)(等)(目)(?)(密)(切)(相)(?)(的)(?)(?)(性)(政)(策)(。
(二)()城)(市)(短)(缺)(。
人)(口)(?)(?)(?)(向)(非)(?)(?)(?)(、?)(?)(村)(向)(城)(市)(、?)(?)(地)(向)(沿)(海)(的)(流)(?)(,已)(?)(成)(?)(一)(种)(普)(遍)(?)(象)(。每)(年)(一)(次)(的)(民)(工)(潮)(愈)(演)(愈)(烈)(。据)(不)(完)(全)(?)(?)(,目)(前)(我)(?)(跨)(地)(?)(的)(流)(?)(人)(口)(已)(?)(7000万)(以)(上)(,安)(徽)(、河)(南)(、湖)(南)(等)(省)(1992年)(外)(出)(打)(工)(的)(?)(?)(力)(都)(超)(?)(了)(500万)(,四)(川)(?)(超)(?)(了)(1000万)(,?)(些)(地)(?)(外)(出)(打)(工)(的)(?)(?)(力)(大)(体)(都)(占)(到)(本)(地)(?)(?)(?)(?)(力)(的)(20%以)(上)(。与)(此)(同)(?)(,由)(于)(人)(口)(流)(?)(?)(分)(集)(中)(于)(?)(有)(特)(大)(城)(市)(和)(少)(?)(?)(?)(地)(?)(,加)(?)(了)(?)(些)(地)(?)(的)(人)(口)(密)(度)(、交)(通)(的)(?)(?)(和)(基)(?)(?)(施)(的)(?)(?)(。北)(京)(、上)(海)(等)(地)(,抽)(?)(?)(?)(的)(流)(?)(人)(口)(已)(越)(三)(成)(,?)(?)(的)(交)(通)(?)(?)(已)(与)(世)(界)(公)(?)(的)(“曼)(谷)(病)(”不)(相)(上)(下)(,就)(?)(新)(建)(的)(深)(圳)(也)(出)(?)(了)(“未)(老)(先)(衰)(”的)(城)(市)(?)(合)(症)(?)(象)(。
?)(?)(?)(剩)(人)(口)(?)(入)(?)(?)(密)(集)(型)(工)(?)(的)(?)(?)(大)(大)(增)(高)(,?)(?)(企)(?)(的)(就)(?)(?)(性)(自)(80年)(代)(后)(期)(以)(?)(?)(始)(大)(幅)(度)(下)(降)(,1988年)(?)(村)(企)(?)(每)(千)(元)(?)(本)(吸)(收)(?)(?)(力)(0.31人)(,1991年)(降)(到)(0.18人)(。另)(一)(方)(面)(,就)(?)(?)(性)(很)(高)(的)(第)(三)(?)(?)(在)(?)(村)(?)(展)(?)(重)(不)(足)(。工)(?)(与)(第)(三)(?)(?)(的)(就)(?)(比)(,以)(工)(?)(?)(1,第)(三)(?)(?)(的)(就)(?)(在)(?)(?)(?)(家)(一)(般)(是)(2~3,我)(?)(城)(市)(大)(体)(是)(1,而)(?)(村)(只)(有)(不)(到)(0.5。1992年)(以)(?)(?)(?)(?)(迅)(猛)(?)(展)(,?)(也)(?)(示)(?)(一)(种)(?)(在)(需)(求)(?)(累)(后)(的)(膨)(?)(—?)(城)(市)(化)(的)(追)(求)(。?)(些)(情)(?)(表)(明)(,80年)(代)(以)(?)(,以)(?)(?)(企)(?)(?)(依)(托)(的)(?)(?)(?)(?)(力)(就)(地)(?)(移)(方)(式)(,已)(?)(以)(适)(?)(今)(天)(乃)(至)(今)(后)(的)(?)(展)(?)(?)(。在)(人)(口)(?)(?)(?)(涌)(向)(非)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(史)(?)(段)(,“城)(市)(短)(缺)(”已)(成)(事)(?)(。
(三)()?)(常)(?)(目)(的)(逆)(差)(?)(?)(。
1993年)(,按)(5.8,1的)(?)(年)(官)(方)(?)(率)(折)(算)(,我)(?)(?)(出)(口)(?)(?)(占)(GNP的)(比)(重)(已)(?)(37%,表)(面)(?)(字)(?)(示)(的)(我)(?)(外)(?)(依)(存)(度)(已)(超)(?)(美)(?)(和)(日)(本)(。出)(口)(已)(?)(遵)(循)(?)(?)(分)(工)(的)(比)(?)(优)(?)(原)(理)(,具)(有)(?)(?)(成)(本)(比)(?)(优)(?)(的)(?)(品)(仍)(然)(占)(出)(口)(的)(主)(?)(地)(位)(。1986年)(我)(?)(?)(?)(品)(出)(口)(?)(占)(?)(出)(口)(?)(的)(比)(重)(?)(23.1%,1993年)(上)(升)(?)(29.6%。?)(扇)(、收)(?)(机)(、彩)(?)(等)(少)(?)(?)(品)(已)(?)(走)(?)(“?)(?)(曲)(?)(”之)(凹)(部)(,逐)(步)(占)(?)(?)(?)(市)(?)(,“雁)(行)(”理)(?)(?)(程)(已)(?)(体)(?)(。1985年)(彩)(?)(的)(竟)(?)(力)(系)(?)(?)(是)(?)(的)(0.9636,1991年)(就)(上)(升)(?)(正)(的)(0.8177。最)(令)(人)(?)(注)(的)(特)(征)(是)(?)(口)(?)(化)(的)(?)(?)(。?)(机)(器)(?)(?)(和)(?)(本)(含)(量)(高)(的)(原)(料)(?)(口)(比)(重)(一)(直)(在)(?)(步)(上)(升)(。?)(?)(?)(政)(策)(?)(松)(?)(,?)(?)(?)(?)(品)(的)(?)(口)(量)(在)(?)(?)(;?)(?)(?)(政)(策)(偏)(?)(?)(,?)(然)(?)(部)(分)(?)(品)(?)(口)(?)(?)(量)(在)(?)(少)(,但)(相)(?)(比)(重)(?)(并)(?)(有)(下)(降)(,?)(口)(需)(求)(呈)(?)(性)(。
工)(?)(化)(的)(?)(?)(?)(明)(,一)(?)(?)(家)(工)(?)(化)(的)(?)(?)(?)(容)(,是)(?)(上)(述)(?)(品)(在)(引)(?)(新)(技)(?)(前)(提)(下)(的)(替)(代)(和)(逐)(步)(?)(?)(出)(口)(。工)(?)(化)(完)(成)(之)(前)(,?)(?)(?)(易)(中)(?)(本)(品)(?)(目)(的)(平)(衡)(?)(?)(,在)(一)(定)(意)(?)(上)(反)(映)(?)(一)(?)(?)(家)(的)(?)(?)(素)(?)(和)(工)(?)(化)(?)(段)(。1992年)(和)(1993年)(我)(?)(机)(?)(?)(品)(的)(?)(易)(赤)(字)(分)(?)(?)(154?)(美)(元)(和)(266?)(美)(元)(。?)(表)(明)(,我)(?)(尚)(不)(具)(?)(大)(?)(模)(替)(代)(?)(?)(?)(品)(的)(技)(?)(?)(?)(和)(生)(?)(能)(力)(。渡)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(,不)(但)(?)(系)(我)(?)(?)(?)(收)(支)(?)(?)(和)(?)(率)(的)(?)(定)(,而)(且)(影)(?)(整)(?)(制)(造)(?)(的)(水)(平)(。?)(于)(?)(?)(?)(口)(的)(研)(究)(?)(告)(指)(出)(:?)(50年)(代)(起)(,我)(?)(?)(?)(了)(3次)(大)(?)(模)(的)(?)(?)(引)(?)(高)(潮)(,?)(固)(然)(?)(我)(?)(工)(?)(化)(和)(?)(?)(增)(?)(起)(到)(了)(重)(要)(的)(促)(?)(作)(用)(,但)(?)(本)(品)(的)(?)(?)(替)(代)(?)(?)(?)(有)(完)(成)(。花)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(不)(出)(一)(?)(?)(代)(化)(?)(,?)(?)(?)(?)(是)(意)(味)(深)(?)(的)(。
(四)()?)(本)(?)(目)(大)(量)(盈)(余)(的)(暗)(示)(。
十)(分)(明)(?)(,?)(?)(收)(支)(中)(?)(常)(?)(目)(的)(?)(字)(?)(?)(本)(?)(目)(的)(盈)(余)(所)(抵)(消)(。1978~1991年)(的)(14年)(?)(,外)(?)(流)(入)(?)(?)(?)(796.3?)(美)(元)(,平)(均)(每)(年)(只)(有)(56?)(美)(元)(,1992年)(一)(年)(猛)(增)(到)(192?)(美)(元)(,1993年)(?)(一)(步)(增)(加)(到)(368?)(美)(元)(左)(右)(,?)(本)(流)(出)(的)(?)(字)(有)(不)(同)(的)(估)(?)(,大)(?)(?)(100?)(美)(元)(。中)(?)(?)(?)(作)(?)(?)(?)(?)(本)(流)(?)(的)(?)(?)(,?)(疑)(是)(令)(人)(?)(?)(的)(,但)(仍)(然)(有)(3?)(?)(?)(不)(能)(不)(引)(起)(重)(?)(:第)(一)(,?)(?)(?)(本)(流)(?)(到)(中)(?)(的)(?)(源)(是)(中)(?)(?)(大)(的)(市)(?)(,在)(?)(?)(?)(家)(普)(遍)(出)(?)(?)(需)(不)(足)(的)(?)(?)(衰)(退)(之)(?)(,外)(?)(涌)(入)(即)(表)(明)(我)(?)(市)(?)(的)(巨)(大)(引)(力)(,也)(暗)(示)(?)(我)(?)(制)(造)(?)(适)(?)(?)(需)(?)(化)(能)(力)(之)(脆)(弱)(;第)(二)(,外)(?)(大)(量)(流)(入)(并)(不)(?)(能)(促)(?)(?)(道)(?)(的)(?)(?)(增)(?)(,一)(?)(?)(自)(日)(本)(大)(藏)(省)(的)(研)(究)(?)(告)(表)(明)(,在)(?)(南)(?)(?)(?)(?)(造)(奇)(?)(的)(?)(程)(中)(,?)(于)(有)(些)(?)(家)(?)(?)(,外)(?)(流)(入)(?)(?)(?)(增)(?)(起)(到)(了)(正)(相)(?)(的)(作)(用)(,而)(在)(另)(一)(些)(?)(家)(,?)(起)(?)(相)(?)(或)(不)(相)(?)(的)(作)(用)(,?)(取)(?)(于)(外)(?)(流)(入)(的)(?)(?)(?)(域)(和)(?)(?)(的)(其)(他)(政)(策)(?)(境)(?)(化)(。另)(外)(,外)(?)(流)(入)(的)(盈)(余)(也)(并)(不)(?)(能)(保)(?)(抵)(消)(?)(常)(?)(目)(的)(逆)(差)(。如)(果)(外)(?)(大)(量)(流)(入)(?)(口)(?)(?)(性)(很)(高)(的)(?)(域)(,?)(?)(期)(看)(,?)(可)(能)(?)(一)(步)(使)(?)(?)(收)(支)(?)(化)(。
(五)()初)(?)(?)(品)(供)(?)(?)(件)(的)(?)(化)(。
早)(在)(70年)(代)(,我)(?)(大)(宗)(初)(?)(?)(品)(,如)(原)(煤)(、原)(油)(、?)(?)(石)(等)(的)(成)(本)(?)(性)(就)(?)(始)(?)(慢)(上)(升)(。?)(?)(80年)(代)(,?)(些)(?)(品)(的)(?)(期)(成)(本)(曲)(?)(加)(快)(向)(右)(上)(方)(的)(移)(?)(,?)(?)(我)(?)(?)(?)(增)(?)(的)(格)(局)(?)(生)(了)(重)(大)(影)(?)(。?)(油)(?)(的)(?)(告)(?)(?)(,自)(1995年)(?)(始)(,我)(?)(?)(大)(量)(?)(口)(原)(油)(,到)(2000年)(,?)(口)(原)(油)(?)(?)(到)(5000万)(吨)(左)(右)(,而)(2010年)(?)(有)(可)(能)(突)(破)(1?)(吨)(;?)(然)(煤)(炭)(仍)(然)(?)(出)(口)(,但)(由)(于)(?)(?)(成)(本)(?)(高)(,沿)(海)(工)(?)(?)(正)(在)(改)(?)(能)(源)(?)(略)(,在)(海)(外)(?)(找)(新)(的)(供)(?)(渠)(道)(。除)(了)(?)(些)(工)(?)(血)(液)(和)(?)(食)(的)(?)(入)(之)(外)(,?)(?)(品)(供)(?)(?)(件)(的)(?)(化)(和)(成)(本)(的)(大)(幅)(度)(上)(升)(,也)(?)(?)(撞)(?)(?)(?)(?)(的)(根)(底)(。?)(些)(?)(象)(可)(以)(?)(列)(?)(多)(,它)(的)(影)(?)(是)(深)(?)(的)(,起)(?)(在)(三)(?)(上)(是)(超)(重)(量)(的)(:?)(供)(?)(方)(面)(?)(?)(物)(价)(水)(平)(?)(而)(?)(宏)(?)(?)(?)(收)(支)(的)(重)(大)(干)(扰)(;?)(口)(增)(加)(?)(而)(?)(?)(?)(收)(支)(的)(影)(?)(;迫)(使)(中)(?)(?)(?)(在)(更)(大)(范)(?)(?)(?)(与)(?)(?)(分)(工)(,?)(?)(?)(放)(?)(件)(下)(?)(源)(?)(?)(的)(均)(衡)(。
(六)()不)(容)(忽)(?)(的)(体)(制)(摩)(擦)(。
新)(?)(展)(?)(象)(的)(出)(?)(伴)(有)(新)(?)(体)(制)(摩)(擦)(。正)(如)(?)(汽)(?)(和)(通)(?)(?)(案)(例)(分)(析)(的)(研)(究)(?)(告)(中)(描)(述)(的)(那)(?)(,?)(管)(消)(?)(?)(构)(的)(突)(?)(和)(?)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(力)(要)(求)(?)(?)(?)(构)(加)(速)(高)(度)(化)((新)(技)(?)(在)(深)(加)(工)(?)(?)(的)(?)(散)(和)(?)(模)(?)(?)(的)(?)(?)(),但)(由)(于)(存)(在)(一)(种)(具)(有)(?)(?)(性)(的)(“政)(府)(行)(?)(循)(?)(”和)(病)(?)(?)(有)(企)(?)(的)(自)(我)(保)(?)(行)(?)(,?)(?)(?)(程)(?)(?)(?)(以)(?)(?)(。?)(的)(体)(制)(?)(?)(尚)(未)(根)(治)(,又)(出)(?)(了)(新)(的)(体)(制)(阻)(力)(,主)(要)(是)(:金)(融)(体)(制)(?)(部)(因)(?)(租)(行)(?)(而)(引)(起)(的)(投)(机)(性)(投)(?)(;?)(政)(体)(制)(分)(割)(而)(形)(成)(的)(?)(骨)(干)(?)(?)(中)(重)(?)(企)(?)(?)(?)(的)(限)(制)(,以)(及)(企)(?)(制)(度)(不)(健)(全)(而)(造)(成)(的)(工)(?)(毫)(?)(?)(束)(的)(上)(升)(。
?)(些)(?)(象)(,不)(但)(?)(?)(期)(的)(?)(构)(?)(整)(造)(成)(困)(?)(,而)(且)(加)(?)(?)(短)(期)(的)(?)(?)(波)(?)(。?)(?)(?)(被)(投)(?)(增)(?)(的)(拉)(力)(推)(上)(高)(速)(增)(?)(的)(?)(道)(?)(,很)(快)(就)(撞)(到)(了)(社)(?)(所)(能)(承)(受)(的)(物)(价)(天)(花)(板)(上)(;而)(一)(旦)(?)(?)(投)(?)(,又)(?)(上)(遇)(到)(企)(?)(成)(本)(?)(以)(承)(受)(的)(极)(限)(。上)(述)(体)(制)(?)(象)(与)(地)(?)(?)(、?)(人)(?)(收)(入)(分)(配)(差)(距)(的)(?)(大)(?)(合)(在)(一)(起)(,使)(中)(?)(?)(?)(?)(化)(了)(周)(期)(短)(化)(的)(?)(?)(,并)(?)(社)(?)(?)(定)(构)(成)(?)(力)(。?)(然)(已)(?)(勾)(?)(出)(改)(革)(的)(?)(体)(?)(?)(,并)(有)(?)(?)(性)(地)(?)(?)(了)(各)(种)(改)(革)(方)(案)(,但)(它)(的)(?)(?)(仍)(然)(要)(?)(?)(二)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(史)(?)(程)(。
上)(述)(?)(?)(象)(主)(要)(?)(明)(:人)(均)(所)(得)(提)(高)(后)(出)(?)(的)(消)(?)(?)(构)(?)(?)(和)(人)(口)(流)(?)(?)(象)(,构)(成)(了)(?)(技)(?)(及)(?)(本)(密)(集)(?)(?)(的)(巨)(大)(需)(求)(;受)(到)(技)(?)(、体)(制)(和)(人)(力)(?)(本)(制)(?)(的)(供)(?)(体)(系)(,反)(?)(慢)(于)(整)(?)(需)(求)(体)(系)(的)(?)(?)(;?)(者)(之)(?)(的)(缺)(口)(正)(被)(?)(?)(?)(易)(的)(?)(梁)(?)(通)(并)(?)(外)(?)(涌)(入)(所)(?)(充)(。然)(而)(,?)(?)(收)(支)(的)(?)(在)(?)(化)(?)(?)(,?)(?)(种)(“大)(循)(?)(”格)(局)(构)(成)(挑)(?)(,?)(企)(?)(制)(度)(入)(手)(及)(相)(?)(的)(?)(金)(制)(度)(?)(革)(入)(手)(,通)(?)(有)(目)(?)(地)(精)(心)(?)(?)(新)(的)(?)(展)(模)(式)(,以)(探)(求)(中)(?)(?)(?)(?)(构)(高)(度)(化)(的)(方)(法)(,已)(成)(?)(?)(放)(?)(件)(下)(刻)(不)(容)(?)(的)(任)(?)(。与)(此)(同)(?)(,构)(造)(中)(?)(的)(城)(市)(化)(道)(路)(,占)(?)(中)(?)(?)(?)(在)(?)(?)(分)(工)(中)(有)(利)(的)(位)(置)(,是)(与)(?)(?)(?)(构)(高)(度)(化)(相)(伴)(而)(生)(的)(同)(一)(命)(?)(的)(不)(同)(?)(面)(。
二)(、?)(展)(的)(?)(?)(及)(含)(?)(
描)(述)(的)(?)(多)(?)(象)(,是)(我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(到)(?)(?)(段)(的)(?)(史)(性)(?)(果)(,是)(?)(?)(?)(步)(所)(提)(出)(的)(新)(?)(?)(,它)(?)(提)(供)(了)(?)(更)(?)(期)(的)(?)(?)(?)(行)(?)(展)(?)(?)(判)(?)(的)(基)(本)(?)(索)(。立)(足)(我)(?)(目)(前)(?)(?)(?)(展)(?)(段)(,沿)(?)(?)(?)(?)(家)(和)(新)(?)(工)(?)(化)(?)(家)(的)(?)(史)(性)(?)(?)(,我)(?)(可)(以)(看)(到)(,?)(?)(在)(起)(至)(21世)(?)(初)(,中)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(和)(?)(?)(?)(构)(演)(?)(?)(沿)(?)(城)(市)(化)(、?)(?)(化)(和)(?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(高)(度)(化)(3?)(主)(流)(?)(?)(前)(?)(。?)(展)(的)(?)(?)(和)(史)(?)(表)(明)(,上)(述)(?)(?)(是)(不)(可)(逆)(的)(,但)(其)(?)(生)(的)(背)(景)(及)(其)(?)(到)(的)(程)(度)(、派)(生)(的)(?)(果)(?)(因)(?)(而)(异)(。?)(管)(?)(?)(化)(、城)(市)(化)(和)(高)(度)(化)(已)(成)(?)(?)(一)(步)(?)(展)(我)(?)(?)(?)(的)(必)(?)(之)(?)(,仍)(有)(必)(要)(明)(确)(其)(特)(定)(含)(?)(及)(其)(派)(生)(?)(果)(。
(一)()城)(市)(化)(。
我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(所)(要)(求)(的)(城)(市)(化)(是)(指)(:?)(成)(本)(?)(用)(及)(其)(社)(?)(?)(?)(分)(析)(角)(度)(出)(?)(,有)(?)(划)(地)(塑)(造)(大)(中)(小)(并)(?)(,以)(中)(小)(?)(主)(的)(城)(市)(群)(体)(网)(?)(,引)(?)(形)(成)(?)(?)(化)(分)(工)(的)(城)(市)(功)(能)(系)(?)(,使)(大)(量)(?)(?)(剩)(余)(?)(?)(力)(及)(其)(派)(生)(的)(非)(?)(?)(?)(群)(,由)(?)(村)(逐)(步)(?)(移)(到)(城)(市)(。城)(市)(化)(要)(?)(?)(效)(益)(与)(公)(平)(兼)(?)(的)(?)(重)(目)(?)(:一)(方)(面)(通)(?)(?)(?)(剩)(余)(?)(?)(力)(的)(逐)(步)(?)(移)(,提)(高)(?)(?)(的)(?)(?)(?)(?)(生)(?)(力)(,?)(?)(?)(?)(品)(的)(?)(模)(?)(?)(,使)(城)(市)(与)(?)(村)(的)(分)(配)(?)(系)(?)(于)(合)(理)(;另)(一)(方)(面)(,通)(?)(?)(自)(流)(?)(性)(的)(效)(益)(及)(城)(市)(集)(聚)(效)(益)(的)(?)(?)(,降)(低)(工)(?)(和)(相)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(?)(成)(本)(,提)(高)(非)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(?)(生)(?)(率)(,?)(而)(增)(加)(?)(民)(?)(?)(在)(生)(?)(可)(能)(性)(曲)(?)(之)(?)(的)(?)(?)(出)(水)(平)(。除)(此)(之)(外)(,城)(市)(化)(的)(?)(?)(是)(使)(越)(?)(越)(多)(的)(人)(享)(有)(?)(代)(文)(明)(的)(机)(?)(,可)(以)(?)(,它)(的)(?)(展)(程)(度)(是)(我)(?)(?)(代)(化)(的)(重)(要)(?)(志)(。?)(?)(看)(到)(,我)(?)(城)(市)(化)(也)(存)(在)(阻)(障)(,突)(出)(的)(是)(:?)(模)(不)(?)(?)(的)(小)(城)(?)(?)(潮)((包)(括)(1992年)(-1993年)(的)(?)(?)(?)(?)()?)(有)(限)(?)(地)(的)(?)(?)(;城)(市)(化)(基)(?)(?)(施)(建)(?)(的)(巨)(大)(社)(?)(?)(本)(需)(求)(与)(有)(限)(?)(本)(供)(?)(的)(?)(突)(;“割)(地)(?)(城)(,占)(山)(?)(王)(”的)(小)(?)(意)(?)(与)(?)(代)(化)(、城)(市)(化)(形)(?)(的)(深)(刻)(矛)(盾)(;人)(口)(大)(量)(流)(?)(形)(成)(的)(不)(?)(定)(性)(可)(能)(造)(成)(的)(局)(部)(社)(?)(危)(机)(?)(象)(。?)(然)(城)(市)(化)(已)(成)(?)(大)(?)(,但)(因)(?)(利)(?)(的)(?)(度)(仍)(然)(很)(大)(。反)(?)(?)(可)(以)(?)(么)(?)(,如)(果)(我)(?)(仍)(然)(沿)(革)(80年)(代)(城)(市)(化)(?)(重)(?)(后)(于)(工)(?)(化)(的)(增)(?)(格)(局)(,?)(?)(的)(脆)(弱)(?)(?)(就)(不)(可)(能)(改)(?)(,大)(量)(民)(工)(潮)(干)(扰)(社)(?)(的)(局)(面)(就)(?)(法)(制)(止)(,城)(?)(?)(系)(?)(大)(的)(社)(?)(?)(?)(就)(?)(愈)(演)(愈)(烈)(,我)(?)(的)(?)(代)(化)(事)(?)(的)(?)(展)(就)(?)(大)(大)(放)(慢)(速)(度)(。
(二)()?)(?)(化)(。
一)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(?)(化)(是)(?)(易)(与)(投)(?)(在)(?)(?)(的)(自)(由)(?)(出)(或)(流)(?)(。我)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(?)(化)(?)(?)(已)(?)(十)(分)(明)(确)(,外)(?)(的)(大)(量)(流)(入)(,外)(?)(在)(?)(民)(?)(?)(份)(?)(?)(大)(,复)(?)(?)(程)(的)(推)(?)(及)(?)(按)(?)(?)(?)(例)(所)(?)(行)(的)(市)(?)(取)(向)(的)(改)(革)(,都)(?)(?)(一)(步)(加)(快)(?)(?)(化)(的)(?)(程)(。初)(?)(?)(品)(生)(?)(和)(?)(易)(?)(件)(的)(?)(化)(,居)(民)(消)(?)(品)(味)(的)(提)(高)(和)(生)(?)(?)(构)(的)(?)(革)(?)(后)(?)(象)(引)(致)(?)(口)(依)(?)(度)(的)(大)(幅)(度)(上)(升)(,?)(?)(另)(一)(?)(角)(度)(?)(我)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(?)(化)(形)(成)(?)(力)(。面)(?)(?)(些)(已)(?)(出)(?)(并)(不)(?)(?)(化)(的)(事)(?)(,我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(化)(的)(?)(一)(步)(目)(?)(是)(:?)(?)(建)(立)(符)(合)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(例)(的)(体)(制)(,按)(照)(?)(?)(?)(范)(和)(商)(?)(?)(?)(,使)(用)(?)(?)(生)(?)(?)(?)(?)(准)(,在)(生)(?)(、投)(?)(等)(各)(?)(?)(域)(全)(面)(加)(入)(?)(?)(分)(工)(,并)(且)(逐)(步)(占)(据)(更)(?)(有)(利)(的)(地)(位)(。然)(而)(,我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(一)(步)(?)(?)(化)(的)(阻)(力)(也)(是)(?)(而)(易)(?)(的)(。?)(管)(用)(外)(?)(流)(入)(量)(、外)(?)(?)(量)(占)(GNP份)(?)(及)(其)(外)(?)(?)(品)(偏)(好)(指)(?)(所)(衡)(量)(的)(中)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(化)(程)(度)(已)(?)(不)(低)(了)(,但)(?)(一)(步)(与)(?)(?)(?)(?)(接)(?)(仍)(然)(存)(在)(体)(制)(、价)(值)(?)(念)(和)(商)(品)(?)(?)(?)(念)(的)(非)(?)(?)(化)(因)(素)(,?)(本)(的)(缺)(乏)(和)(生)(?)(?)(域)(因)(?)(?)(而)(引)(起)(的)(排)(外)(性)(,以)(及)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(新)(?)(向)(的)(不)(熟)(悉)(,可)(能)(是)(?)(大)(的)(阻)(力)(。但)(?)(?)(如)(何)(,本)(世)(?)(末)(和)(21世)(?)(初)(,生)(?)(要)(素)(跨)(越)(?)(?)(的)(?)(象)(?)(被)(?)(化)(,跨)(?)(合)(作)(是)(一)(?)(大)(的)(?)(?)(,我)(?)(要)(充)(分)(而)(清)(醒)(地)(看)(到)(?)(?)(事)(?)(。
(三)()?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(高)(度)(化)(。
推)(?)(?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(高)(加)(工)(度)(化)(,是)(我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(提)(出)(的)(另)(一)(?)(?)(?)(性)(?)(?)(。高)(度)(化)(的)(概)(念)(源)(于)(日)(本)(,它)(的)(基)(本)(所)(指)(是)(,通)(?)(使)(用)(新)(技)(?)(和)(工)(?)(?)(而)(使)(?)(?)(生)(?)(率)(提)(高)(更)(快)(,?)(得)(更)(高)(的)(附)(加)(价)(值)(。日)(本)(?)(?)(?)(构)(高)(度)(化)(与)(其)(?)(易)(立)(?)(的)(?)(展)(?)(略)(直)(接)(有)(?)(,以)(重)(商)(主)(?)(?)(指)(?)(,在)(?)(?)(分)(工)(中)(通)(?)(深)(加)(工)(初)(?)(原)(料)(并)(?)(大)(最)(?)(制)(成)(品)(出)(口)(,是)(日)(本)(?)(?)(?)(构)(高)(度)(化)(的)(基)(本)(思)(路)(,而)(保)(?)(?)(略)(性)(幼)(稚)(工)(?)(,是)(其)(精)(髓)(之)(所)(在)(。如)(前)(述)(分)(析)(所)(示)(的)(,我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(高)(度)(化)(的)(要)(求)(不)(同)(于)(奉)(行)(重)(商)(主)(?)(?)(略)(的)(日)(本)(,它)(的)(客)(?)(原)(因)(在)(于)(以)(下)(几)(?)(:我)(?)(人)(均)(所)(得)(提)(高)(后)(消)(?)(品)(及)(投)(?)(需)(求)(偏)(好)(的)(高)(?)(化)(与)(?)(?)(生)(?)(能)(力)(出)(?)(?)(?)(,?)(引)(起)(了)(?)(口)(依)(?)(度)(上)(升)(和)(?)(常)(?)(目)(收)(支)(?)(?)(的)(?)(力)(;初)(?)(?)(品)(生)(?)(和)(?)(易)(?)(件)(?)(化)((包)(括)(成)(本)(上)(升)()提)(高)(的)(?)(口)(?)(向)(之)(?)(力)(;?)(?)(市)(?)(?)(?)(和)(成)(本)(上)(升)(?)(致)(的)(出)(口)(?)(?)(速)(度)(?)(?)(;大)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(足)(?)(需)(的)(自)(主)(性)(要)(求)(。?)(?)(?)(?)(收)(支)(的)(均)(衡)(,?)(而)(?)(民)(?)(?)(?)(足)(?)(需)(能)(力)(的)(增)(?)(,是)(我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(构)(必)(?)(走)(向)(高)(度)(化)(的)(主)(要)(原)(因)(,?)(?)(然)(与)(?)(年)(日)(本)(的)(情)(?)(截)(然)(不)(同)(。?)(?)(?)(展)(的)(?)(?)(化)(?)(?)(与)(?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(高)(度)(化)(?)(?)(似)(乎)(存)(在)(相)(悖)(的)(?)(象)(:前)(者)(要)(求)(?)(一)(步)(放)(?)(某)(些)(?)(?)(的)(或)(某)(些)(?)(?)(?)(?)(的)(生)(?)(行)(?)(,更)(多)(地)(利)(用)(?)(?)(分)(工)(?)(?)(?)(?)(循)(?)(;而)(后)(者)(?)(要)(求)(?)(一)(步)(抓)(住)(并)(?)(大)(在)(某)(些)(?)(?)(或)(生)(?)(?)(?)(可)(能)(?)(失)(的)(机)(?)(。但)(?)(?)(上)(,?)(者)(不)(但)(不)(矛)(盾)(,反)(而)(相)(?)(相)(成)(。因)(?)(,只)(有)(在)(占)(有)(有)(利)(分)(工)(地)(位)(的)(基)(?)(上)(的)(?)(?)(化)(?)(?)(才)(能)(成)(?)(上)(升)(的)(?)(?)(,而)(?)(?)(?)(构)(高)(度)(化)(要)(?)(到)(的)(目)(?)(正)(在)(于)(此)(。
基)(于)(以)(上)(判)(?)(,我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(构)(高)(度)(化)(的)(基)(本)(含)(?)(是)(:利)(用)(?)(放)(?)(易)(和)(投)(?)(?)(?)(的)(新)(技)(?)(,?)(可)(能)(利)(用)(?)(?)(合)(作)(的)(形)(式)(在)(几)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(特)(?)(是)(?)(?)(制)(造)(?)(加)(以)(吸)(?)(、?)(?)(和)(?)(散)(,?)(早)(形)(成)(?)(?)(和)(生)(?)(?)(力)(,全)(面)(提)(高)(我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(素)(?)(。与)(上)(述)(含)(?)(相)(呼)(?)(,我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(高)(度)(化)(?)(包)(括)(?)(?)(一)(些)(宏)(?)(?)(容)(:初)(?)(?)(?)(占)(?)(民)(?)(?)(?)(份)(?)(的)(?)(一)(步)(下)(降)(,制)(造)(?)(中)(支)(柱)(?)(?)(的)(?)(?)(及)(服)(?)(?)(的)(快)(速)(?)(展)(。由)(于)(?)(些)(?)(容)(早)(已)(多)(有)(刻)(?)(,我)(?)(不)(再)(展)(?)(。?)(此)(,必)(?)(消)(除)(以)(下)(主)(要)(的)(制)(?)(:金)(融)(体)(制)(?)(企)(?)(技)(?)(吸)(?)(和)(?)(?)(的)(?)(重)(束)(?)(;技)(?)(?)(?)(及)(?)(散)(初)(期)(的)(成)(本)(?)(?)(的)(解)(?)(,更)(?)(?)(放)(的)(企)(?)(本)(位)(制)(度)(的)(不)(确)(定)(性)(;整)(?)(制)(造)(?)(生)(?)(的)(非)(?)(准)(化)(?)(象)(和)(中)(等)(技)(?)(工)(人)(的)(?)(重)(不)(足)(。克)(服)(上)(述)(制)(?)(有)(不)(同)(的)(方)(法)(,早)(期)(日)(本)(的)(做)(法)(是)(保)(?)(主)(?)(的)(。?)(种)(做)(法)(不)(但)(在)(?)(?)(上)(已)(?)(?)(?)(,在)(中)(?)(也)(?)(以)(?)(?)(。?)(几)(年)(的)(?)(?)(?)(明)(,凡)(是)(被)(保)(?)(的)(“重)(?)(?)(?)(”,不)(但)(都)(?)(不)(住)(,反)(而)(走)(向)(衰)(落)(,而)(?)(放)(?)(?)(的)(?)(?)(?)(出)(?)(了)(新)(的)(生)(机)(。彩)(?)(、冰)(箱)(、自)(行)(?)(的)(案)(例)(已)(?)(明)(了)(?)(公)(?)(。通)(?)(?)(?)(化)(的)(?)(法)(促)(?)(我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(的)(高)(度)(化)(,是)(明)(智)(?)(法)(,也)(是)(效)(益)(最)(好)(的)(?)(法)(。?)(?)(看)(到)(,高)(度)(化)(?)(象)(与)(城)(市)(化)(?)(象)(存)(有)(?)(突)(。在)(大)(部)(分)(中)(等)(收)(入)(以)(上)(的)(?)(家)(之)(中)(,工)(?)(化)(与)(城)(市)(化)(的)(同)(步)(推)(?)(是)(一)(?)(自)(然)(和)(?)(史)(?)(程)(,?)(者)(同)(?)(?)(生)(,相)(互)(促)(?)(?)(模)(?)(?)(效)(?)(的)(出)(?)(,是)(成)(本)(?)(低)(的)(?)(展)(方)(式)(。?)(前)(?)(者)(?)(行)(到)(一)(定)(?)(段)(,城)(市)(化)(任)(?)(已)(?)(基)(本)(完)(成)(之)(后)(,才)(集)(中)(力)(量)(解)(?)(?)(?)(?)(构)(高)(加)(工)(度)(化)(的)(?)(?)(。但)(在)(我)(?)(,?)(?)(不)(同)(?)(史)(?)(段)(的)(任)(?)(被)(推)(入)(同)(一)(日)(之)(?)(。在)(?)(高)(收)(入)(和)(成)(本)(水)(平)(上)(推)(?)(城)(市)(化)((特)(?)(是)(土)(地)(成)(本)(和)(基)(?)(?)(施)(?)(用)()需)(要)(巨)(?)(投)(入)(,而)(支)(柱)(?)(?)(高)(度)(化)(的)(初)(期)(同)(?)(投)(?)(巨)(大)(,?)(者)(相)(互)(?)(?)(?)(源)(?)(象)(必)(?)(加)(重)(,?)(最)(?)(?)(反)(映)(在)(?)(?)(收)(支)(的)(?)(力)(和)(我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(化)(的)(要)(求)(上)(。?)(?)(?)(意)(?)(上)(?)(?)(,“三)(?)(化)(”既)(相)(互)(矛)(盾)(、制)(?)(,又)(可)(能)(?)(化)(,怎)(?)(在)(?)(三)(?)(大)(?)(?)(中)(妥)(善)(?)(?)(和)(引)(?)(,可)(以)(?)(是)(后)(20年)(我)(?)(政)(府)(要)(解)(?)(的)(中)(心)(?)(?)(。我)(?)(的)(基)(本)(看)(法)(是)(,以)(城)(市)(化)(?)(主)(要)(?)(索)(和)(依)(据)(,在)(逐)(步)(推)(?)(城)(市)(化)(的)(?)(程)(中)(,引)(?)(?)(?)(?)(构)(和)(?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(?)(?)(化)(,是)(比)(?)(正)(确)(的)(?)(?)(。
三)(、新)(?)(?)(下)(的)(?)(?)(政)(策)(?)(型)(
适)(?)(我)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(的)(?)(?)(性)(要)(求)(以)(及)(社)(?)(主)(?)(市)(?)(?)(?)(的)(体)(制)(要)(求)(,政)(府)(需)(要)(在)(?)(期)(的)(?)(展)(政)(策)(,特)(?)(是)(?)(?)(政)(策)(方)(面)(?)(行)(有)(?)(?)(性)(的)(、合)(理)(的)(?)(?)(。本)(文)(在)(此)(的)(研)(究)(重)(?)(是)(适)(?)(未)(?)(?)(境)(?)(化)(的)(?)(?)(政)(策)(的)(?)(型)(,在)(描)(述)(?)(?)(政)(策)(之)(前)(,一)(些)(?)(期)(的)(具)(有)(宏)(?)(性)(和)(?)(略)(性)(的)(政)(策)(方)(向)(需)(要)(引)(起)(充)(分)(的)(重)(?)(:
(1)保)(持)(政)(治)(和)(社)(?)(的)(?)(定)(,避)(免)(和)(?)(少)(?)(构)(?)(?)(?)(程)(中)(可)(能)(?)(生)(的)(社)(?)(震)(?)(;
(2)?)(施)(有)(力)(的)(反)(通)(?)(膨)(?)(政)(策)(,在)(?)(?)(政)(策)(和)(?)(政)(政)(策)(方)(面)(要)(借)(助)(?)(?)(?)(?)(,?)(我)(?)(的)(?)(?)(情)(?)(看)(,?)(量)(政)(策)(要)(把)(握)(?)(期)(微)(?)(的)(基)(?)(;
(3)?)(教)(育)(的)(高)(度)(重)(?)(,把)(人)(力)(?)(本)(的)(?)(?)(和)(?)(?)(?)(?)(提)(到)(更)(?)(优)(先)(的)(地)(位)(;
(4)重)(?)(政)(府)(机)(构)(的)(改)(革)(,培)(?)(更)(?)(精)(干)(和)(高)(效)(率)(的)(?)(?)(管)(理)(人)(?)(;
(5)建)(立)(适)(?)(性)(更)(?)(的)(?)(?)(?)(易)(管)(理)(体)(制)(,与)(?)(?)(?)(?)(的)(要)(求)(接)(?)(。
除)(此)(之)(外)(,?)(?)(?)(取)(?)(好)(的)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(境)(,也)(是)(保)(持)(?)(期)(?)(展)(所)(必)(需)(的)(。面)(?)(今)(后)(?)(?)(体)(制)(和)(?)(?)(?)(展)(、?)(?)(?)(构)(的)(?)(?)(?)(?)(,作)(?)(政)(府)(主)(?)(干)(?)(?)(?)(生)(活)(、?)(源)(配)(置)(重)(要)(方)(式)(之)(一)(的)(?)(?)(政)(策)(,也)(要)(?)(生)(新)(的)(?)(化)(,采)(取)(不)(同)(于)(已)(往)(的)(?)(型)(和)(形)(式)(。?)(?)(政)(策)(所)(要)(解)(?)(的)(,主)(要)(是)(在)(城)(市)(化)(、?)(?)(化)(和)(高)(度)(化)(?)(程)(中)(,?)(?)(?)(展)(?)(?)(之)(?)(的)(?)(突)(以)(及)(?)(些)(?)(?)(和)(?)(渡)(的)(体)(制)(的)(?)(突)(,而)(且)(?)(种)(?)(突)(?)(?)(依)(靠)(目)(前)(的)(自)(?)(机)(制)(又)(?)(以)(有)(效)(解)(?)(。?)(理)(性)(概)(括)(的)(角)(度)(看)(,?)(?)(政)(策)(包)(括)(三)(大)(?)(,即)(指)(?)(性)(的)(、差)(?)(性)(的)(和)(功)(能)(性)(的)(。?)(操)(作)(性)(和)(使)(用)(性)(考)(?)(,未)(?)(20年)(?)(?)(政)(策)(的)(主)(要)(?)(型)(和)(形)(式)(?)(有)(如)(下)(几)(?)(方)(面)(。
(一)()指)(?)(性)(的)(?)(?)(政)(策)(?)(?)(。
主)(要)(?)(容)(是)(在)(准)(确)(分)(析)(和)(把)(握)(?)(?)(?)(展)(、体)(制)(等)(?)(境)(、背)(景)(的)(基)(?)(上)(,勾)(?)(需)(求)(?)(构)(、?)(?)(?)(构)(、?)(?)(?)(?)(、?)(?)(技)(?)(、?)(?)(布)(局)(?)(?)(的)(?)(期)(性)(大)(?)(?)(;展)(示)(主)(要)(?)(?)(的)(市)(?)(、技)(?)(、?)(?)(?)(模)(的)(?)(展)(前)(景)(;政)(府)(?)(各)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(?)(模)(、速)(度)(的)(基)(本)(?)(度)(;?)(?)(政)(策)(的)(基)(?)(框)(架)(和)(政)(策)(方)(向)(。其)(作)(用)(一)(方)(面)(是)(引)(?)(各)(?)(?)(?)(主)(体)(的)(活)(?)(,影)(?)(?)(?)(活)(?)(主)(体)(的)(?)(期)(性)(?)(略)(?)(策)(;另)(一)(方)(面)(是)(?)(其)(他)(形)(式)(的)(?)(?)(政)(策)(提)(供)(依)(据)(。其)(作)(用)(性)(?)(是)(指)(?)(性)(的)(,而)(不)(是)(?)(制)(性)(的)(。作)(用)(期)(限)(比)(?)(?)(。由)(于)(其)(指)(?)(性)(,可)(以)(不)(必)(追)(求)(操)(作)(性)(。表)(?)(形)(式)(可)(以)(采)(取)(?)(似)(于)(政)(府)(“通)(告)(”、“告)(示)(”的)(形)(式)(,并)(向)(全)(社)(?)(公)(?)(。
(二)()特)(定)(?)(?)(和)(?)(域)(的)(基)(本)(法)(。
?)(?)(基)(本)(法)(主)(要)(具)(有)(?)(?)(几)(?)(特)(?)(的)(?)(?)(:(l)公)(共)(性)(?)(?)(,(2)具)(有)(自)(然)(?)(?)(性)(?)(,(3)?)(于)(?)(民)(?)(?)(命)(?)(的)(?)(?)(,(4)?)(民)(?)(?)(的)(基)(?)(性)(?)(?)(。?)(些)(?)(?)(的)(共)(同)(特)(?)(是)(不)(能)(完)(全)(交)(由)(市)(?)(自)(由)(?)(?)(,即)(?)(于)(“市)(?)(失)(?)(”的)(?)(?)(。?)(?)(制)(定)(的)(?)(?)(基)(本)(法)(有)(:教)(育)(法)(、?)(生)(法)(、?)(?)(通)(信)(法)(、航)(空)(航)(天)(法)(、?)(券)(及)(?)(券)(交)(易)(法)(、?)(?)(基)(本)(法)(等)(。特)(定)(?)(域)(的)(法)(律)(,主)(要)(包)(括)(:我)(?)(己)(?)(制)(?)(或)(正)(在)(制)(定)(的)(?)(源)(法)(、土)(地)(法)(、?)(?)(法)(、反)(?)(?)(法)(、中)(小)(企)(?)(基)(本)(法)(、?)(?)(企)(?)(法)(等)(等)(。主)(要)(目)(的)(是)(?)(范)(?)(些)(?)(?)(?)(域)(的)(?)(?)(行)(?)(,确)(定)(政)(府)(干)(?)(的)(?)(域)(和)(做)(法)(,企)(?)(如)(何)(?)(入)(和)(退)(出)(、价)(格)(如)(何)(?)(控)(、竟)(?)(方)(式)(等)(。?)(?)(?)(?)(的)(基)(本)(法)(不)(涉)(及)(优)(惠)(政)(策)(,是)(功)(能)(性)(的)(。其)(作)(用)(主)(要)(是)(?)(制)(度)(上)(?)(行)(?)(范)(,使)(其)(?)(?)(的)(?)(展)(做)(到)(?)(?)(效)(益)(和)(社)(?)(效)(益)(目)(?)(的)(高)(度)(?)(一)(。作)(用)(期)(限)(?)(?)(很)(?)(。?)(文)(要)(?)(范)(和)(具)(有)(可)(解)(?)(性)(。表)(?)(形)(式)(以)(?)(家)(法)(律)(形)(式)(公)(布)(。
(三)()特)(定)(?)(?)(的)(振)(?)(?)(例)(。
主)(要)(是)(?)(?)(在)(一)(定)(?)(期)(,?)(?)(民)(?)(?)(?)(展)(的)(整)(体)(需)(要)(,或)(?)(?)(外)(?)(易)(以)(及)(?)(社)(?)(目)(?)(考)(?)(需)(要)(?)(特)(定)(?)(?)(?)(行)(干)(?)(和)(扶)(植)(的)(?)(?)(。如)(?)(解)(?)(?)(民)(?)(?)(?)(展)(的)(“瓶)(?)(”?)(?)(出)(?)(,制)(定)(交)(通)(?)(?)(?)(振)(?)(?)(例)(;?)(保)(?)(?)(?)(幼)(稚)(?)(?)(,培)(育)(未)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(“火)(?)(?)(”的)(需)(求)(出)(?)(,制)(定)(汽)(?)(工)(?)(?)(?)(政)(策)(;?)(?)(持)(?)(?)(收)(支)(的)(目)(?)(出)(?)(,扶)(植)(出)(口)(?)(?)(,制)(定)(出)(口)(?)(?)(振)(?)(?)(例)(;?)(于)(衰)(退)(?)(?)(,?)(社)(?)(目)(?)(出)(?)(,制)(定)(衰)(退)(?)(?)(保)(?)(?)(策)(等)(等)(。?)(?)(政)(策)(的)(主)(要)(作)(用)(是)(通)(?)(特)(殊)(的)(政)(策)(,?)(造)(一)(?)(不)(同)(于)(其)(他)(?)(?)(的)(小)(的)(?)(展)(?)(境)(,借)(以)(?)(?)(完)(全)(依)(靠)(市)(?)(所)(不)(能)(?)(到)(的)(?)(展)(速)(度)(和)(水)(平)(。?)(此)(,?)(?)(?)(?)(政)(策)(要)(有)(不)(同)(于)(其)(他)(?)(?)(的)(优)(惠)(政)(策)(,以)(体)(?)(差)(?)(性)(;政)(策)(?)(文)(要)(具)(有)(可)(操)(作)(性)(;?)(施)(期)(限)(要)(有)(?)(格)(的)(限)(制)(,体)(?)(其)(?)(效)(性)(。?)(于)(其)(中)(?)(于)(政)(府)(?)(政)(行)(?)(的)(?)(?)(?)(制)(?)(更)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(划)(。此)(?)(?)(?)(政)(策)(的)(表)(?)(形)(式)(似)(?)(以)(?)(?)(院)(法)(?)(的)(形)(式)(公)(布)(,其)(范)(?)(要)(?)(可)(能)(?)(小)(,期)(限)(也)(要)(明)(确)(。
(四)()?)(?)(优)(先)(序)(列)(。
?)(是)(指)(在)(一)(定)(期)(限)(?)(,政)(府)(?)(各)(?)(?)(?)(、?)(品)(?)(展)(优)(先)(?)(序)(的)(一)(种)(意)(?)(。按)(其)(功)(能)(又)(可)(分)(?)(?)(?)(:一)(种)(主)(要)(是)(?)(掌)(管)(?)(?)(杠)(杆)(的)(?)(?)(部)(?)(提)(供)(的)(,作)(?)(有)(?)(部)(?)(使)(用)(?)(政)(或)(政)(策)(性)(?)(金)(、?)(?)(?)(收)(和)(?)(?)(、利)(率)(操)(作)(、股)(票)(和)(?)(券)(?)(行)(和)(上)(市)(以)(及)(?)(出)(口)(?)(可)(?)(使)(用)(等)(政)(策)(手)(段)(提)(供)(依)(据)(。需)(要)(提)(供)(序)(列)(的)(部)(?)(主)(要)(是)(:?)(家)(?)(?)(?)(行)(、?)(家)(?)(?)(?)(?)(?)(行)(、?)(家)(?)(出)(口)(?)(行)(等)(政)(策)(性)(?)(行)(,海)(?)(、?)(?)(、外)(?)(、股)(票)(和)(?)(券)(管)(理)(部)(?)(等)(。另)(一)(?)(是)(?)(社)(?)(各)(?)(?)(?)(主)(体)(提)(供)(的)(指)(?)(性)(?)(?)(、?)(品)(序)(列)(,是)(指)(?)(性)(的)(。如)(吸)(收)(外)(商)(直)(接)(投)(?)(的)(?)(?)(序)(列)(、?)(?)(企)(?)(?)(?)(?)(展)(序)(列)(等)(。?)(种)(?)(?)(政)(策)(的)(?)(效)(性)(很)(?)(,?)(能)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(化)(?)(?)(?)(整)(,?)(明)(并)(具)(有)(易)(操)(作)(性)(。主)(要)(以)(?)(?)(政)(策)(主)(管)(部)(?)(文)(件)(的)(形)(式)(提)(供)(?)(有)(?)(部)(?)(,并)(?)(建)(立)(?)(查)(、?)(督)(和)(修)(正)(的)(?)(范)(性)(制)(度)(。
(五)()?)(模)(?)(?)(和)(技)(?)(?)(准)(。
?)(是)(指)(政)(府)(按)(照)(各)(?)(?)(?)(的)(?)(?)(技)(?)(?)(律)(,在)(?)(模)(?)(?)(?)(著)(的)(?)(?)(和)(?)(品)(?)(域)(,制)(定)(最)(低)(?)(模)(?)(?)(?)(准)(,?)(定)(企)(?)(?)(入)(的)(起)(?)(?)(模)(,?)(而)(跨)(?)(小)(?)(模)(一)(?)(?)(一)(兼)(并)(和)(合)(并)(一)(大)(?)(模)(的)(漫)(?)(?)(程)(,促)(?)(?)(模)(?)(?)(的)(利)(用)(,降)(低)(成)(本)(。技)(?)(?)(准)(是)(在)(一)(定)(?)(期)(政)(府)(?)(保)(?)(消)(?)(者)(利)(益)(和)(促)(?)(技)(?)(?)(步)(出)(?)(,?)(各)(?)(?)(?)(、?)(品)(的)(最)(低)(技)(?)(要)(求)(,也)(可)(以)(看)(作)(是)(一)(种)(技)(?)(壁)(?)(,即)(?)(不)(到)(此)(要)(求)(,禁)(止)(企)(?)(?)(入)(。?)(?)(?)(?)(政)(策)(具)(有)(?)(制)(性)(。期)(限)(?)(?)(,但)(也)(?)(隔)(一)(定)(?)(段)(?)(行)(修)(改)(。表)(?)(形)(式)(?)(以)(?)(?)(院)(法)(?)(?)(布)(。
(六)()特)(定)(地)(域)(的)(?)(?)(政)(策)(。
?)(是)(?)(特)(定)(地)(域)(的)(?)(?)(?)(展)(和)(?)(?)(?)(展)(?)(行)(?)(?)(考)(?)(,并)(由)(中)(央)(政)(府)(采)(取)(措)(施)(?)(行)(扶)(植)(、鼓)(?)(以)(及)(限)(制)(的)(?)(?)(布)(局)(政)(策)(,是)(根)(据)(?)(?)(性)(?)(?)(政)(策)(中)(?)(?)(布)(局)(政)(策)(的)(原)(?)(,把)(?)(?)(?)(展)(和)(地)(域)(?)(?)(?)(展)(?)(合)(起)(?)(的)(具)(体)(政)(策)(。作)(用)(范)(?)(?)(限)(于)(特)(定)(的)(地)(?)(。今)(后)(一)(段)(?)(?)(适)(?)(制)(定)(如)(下)(地)(域)(性)(?)(?)(政)(策)(:如)(中)(西)(部)(地)(?)(?)(?)(企)(?)(振)(?)(措)(施)(、?)(源)(枯)(竭)(地)(域)(?)(?)(?)(构)(?)(整)(?)(策)(、中)(小)(城)(?)(?)(展)(?)(划)(大)(?)(、?)(?)(蒙)(地)(?)(能)(源)(基)(地)(政)(策)(、西)(南)(向)(?)(南)(的)(“西)(?)(?)(送)(”?)(划)(、沿)(海)(地)(?)(港)(口)(分)(工)(和)(布)(局)(?)(划)(等)(等)(。(完)()
文)(章)(?)(源)(:《管)(理)(世)(界)(》?)(月)(刊)(1994年)(第)(5期)((本)(文)(?)(?)(?)(代)(表)(作)(者)(?)(?)()
本)(篇)(?)(?)(:游)(?)(棋)(返)(回)(搜)(狐)(,查)(看)(更)(多)(
?)(任)(?)(?)(:
?)(明)(:?)(文)(?)(?)(?)(代)(表)(作)(者)(本)(人)(,搜)(狐)(?)(系)(信)(息)(?)(布)(平)(台)(,搜)(狐)(?)(提)(供)(信)(息)(存)(?)(空)(?)(服)(?)(。
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